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Part 3. 




Registered at the General Post Office. Sydney, for transmission by Post as a Hewspaper. 

Price SIXPENCE. 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W . 



Mar. 2, 1921. 




THE ESSEX is a light Car of 
high-class manufacture and 
extreme refinement 

It is built in the HUDSON factory 
alongside the famous "SUPER-SIX." 

It possesses many HUDSON features, 
including the patented " compensated" 
crankshaft, and although the rated 
horse-power is but 18, the engine 
actually develops 55-brake horse- 
power. 

The remarkable combination of light 
weight, high power and durability in 
the ESSEX, renders it particularly 
suitable for our country roads, where 
loose sand, creeks, etc., have to be 
negotiated. 

THE CAR THAT IS LIGHT ON TYRES. 



DALGETY & COMPANY LIMITED 

136 PHILLIP ST. SYDNEY. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



i 



SUNLIGHT 

OIL-CAKE 




A Better Result 



NIK. SHANAHAN, of Coleraine. writes :— 
Dear Sirs, 

I am enclosing cheque for Oil-C^ke. It took me a long time 
before I could get the cows to eat it but they got to lik? it by 
degrees, and the result is entirely satisfactory. I really do not 
know of a substance that could give a better result. I regret very 
much that I did not have it earlier, and I feel sure I would have 
doubled my supply of cream. One of my cows was nearly dry, 
and was not giving more than a pint of milk per day. Now she is 
giving 1 J gallons. Certainly some of the resuk is due to the in- 
creased supply of grass, but from the time I got her to eat the Oil- 
Cake she steadily improved and is continuing on the improve. 

Please send me 2 cwt. more as the last lot is nearly used up. 



Yours faithfully, 

(Signed; JOHN SHANAHAN 



= For Pott Free Book— 



"Milk Flow and Butter Fat 

increased by Scientific Feeding," 

By H. M. SOMER, Royal Agricultural Society 
Write to Lever Brother* Limited (Dairy Department) Sydney 



Sunlight" 
Oilcake 



Guaranteed Pure 

See that the name "Sunlight"' 
is branded on every cake 



m 



ii Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 192 



To Graziers and Settlers. 



KINDLY NOTE— 

If you are changing your 
Wool Broker — 

Please think of 



SCHUTE, BELL & Co., Ltd. 



They give PERSONAL ATTENTION 
to YOUR INTERESTS, and are a 

New South Wales Company. 



OFFICES— 

44 BRIDGE STREET, 
SYDNEY. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



111 



Tie Commercial Banking Company of Sydney Limited 



':'.«» olithfd l«t. 



Capital Paid-up -- 
Reserve Fund 
Reserve Capital 



£2,500,000 
2,220,000 
2.500.000 



£.7,220,000 
Directors: GEORGE J. COHEN, Esq. (Chairman) : Hon. EL E. EATER, 1LL.C. (Deputy 
Hon. HENRY MOSES, M.L.C. ; J. W. MACARTHUR ON3LOW, Esq.; 
and Hon. SIR THOMAS HUGHES, M.L.C. 
Honorary Director: Sir THOMAS A. DIBBS. 
Auditors: F. W. HLXSON, Esq., and HARINGTON B. COWPER, E*«. 
General Manager: H. H. MA3SIR. 




Head Office: SYDNEY— 343 George Street, 

Umntger : W. R. SAYERS. Secretary : M. S. GRANT AxsULiiU Manager: L. A. PARSER. 
Accountant: f. J. L. DDNLOP. Attutant Ateountant : E. R. DRYHCRST. 

BMMNOtES :— inspector* : J. H. ROXBURGH, J. R, DRYHURST, F. E. BAYLIS, Y. Q- LINDEMAJI. 

Lonoon Branch: 18 BIRCHIN LANE, E.C. 

Dulmctom : Hon. EL S. Littleton ; H. S. H. Guinness, Esq. ; Lewis W. G. BaUer, Esq. 

Mas asbk : F. A. Scrivener. London* Bankers : Tb« Bank of England : The London County 

Westminster and Parr's Bank Ltd. ; Barclays Bank Ltd. 

Branches throuzhmvt New South Wales and Queensland. Agencies throughout the World. 



IV 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




FROM MAKER TO USER— 



Mitchell Ploughs 

KNOWN FOR THEIR RELIABILITY , 
& USED THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA. 



MADE IN 
AUSTRALIA 
TO MEET 



LOCAL CONDITIONS. 



Mitchell's Light Ploughs 
for Orchards &, Gardens. 

These specially made MITCHELL Australian Ploughs are designed 
for small work, and give wonderful service in orchards, vineyards, 
gardens, and for poisoning. Being light, they get over the ground 
easily and efficiently — save time, labour and money. Much cheaper 
in cost, and in operation, than standard ploughs — proved to be 
most reliable after the hardest service tests. 

Writ* your name and 
address on Otis an- 
nouncement and post 
to us for futt par- 
ticulars, terms ; also 
information about 
M ticket? » famous seed 
drills. 





-^MITCHELL 



& CO. 

PTY. 

LTD. 



CROW 
ABOOT 



Australian Manufacturers for over 25 years, 

PARRAMATTA ROAD, BURWOOD 

Comer BURWOOD ROAD, f 

SYDNEY. 




Mar, 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



It's all in the skimming:. 






YOUR herd may be in 
splendid condition, the 
mi!k-yieid excellent, but if 
your skimming methods are 
faulty your profits arc suffering 
a continual drain. 

THE 

"AUTOMATIC" 

is the logical choice of the 
man »ho makes a detailed 
comparison of points before he 
decides on a separator. 
It reduces labor costs, leaves 
more time for other tasks, and 
saves every particle of cream. 
Its cost is soon covered by the 
extra profit* it makes. 

Price £75. 





The "NEW ERA" 

is a hand-separator of the highest meiits. It 
does the work efficiently and quickly. It is a 
close skimmer that allows no cream to escape 
with the skim milk. 

All ball-bearings interchangeable and adjustable. 
We will gladly forward you a cony of the 
opinions of thoie who use these exceptional 
machines. 



Ba22£22S$ 



7-11 Market Street 



Sydney. 



VI 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




FIRST in PEACE, 

FIRST in WAR, 

FIRST in the HEARTS of 

the N.S.W. FARMERS. 

QUALITY IMPLEMENTS 



warn® 

TORONTO ^ 
CANADA 



%■»..-.' ! Si I 
»■■»•" 'wr\ 



mwmvm 



i he call to-day 

,s for QUALITY'' 

The matter of price 

does not carry so 

much weight with 

the careful buyer as 

does the 

-QUAOTY" of 

the goods— the Qual- 
ity is remembered 
Jong after the Price 

is forgotten. 
The Massey-H arris 
Trademark f tands for 

"QUALITY" 

Mass«y-H arris Im- 
plements are famous 
for Efficiency, Dur- 
ability- Simplicity, 
Reliability and 
Economy. 



Reaper Tnrsskwans 

B index* 

Mowers, Rakes 

Cultivators, Seeders 

Fertiliser Drills 

fHoe or Disc) 

Fertiliser Sowers 

Diso Hsxbows 

Drag Harrows 

Harrow Carts 

Corn Planters 

Corn Shelters 

Plows, Soufflers 

Land Boilers 

Packers 
Binder Twin* 
Haotrtnery Ofl 



Lo*L ior tie 
MASSEY-HARRIS 

TrjKleoiark wteo buying 
yoMT Farm latplceieiita. 



MASSEY-HARRIS GO. LTD. 

Melbourne, Sydney, South Brisbane, Perth, Christchurch. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Ac* r (cultural Gazette of N.SAY vii 



BANK OF 



^fe> 




NEW SOUTH WALES 



ESTABLISHED 1817. 



Paid-up Capital ... ... ... ... £4,95B,260 

Reserve Fund ... _ ... ... £3,350,000 

Reserve Liability ... ... ... ... £4^58,260 

£73,266,520 

Directors. 
Thk Hom. 8ib CHARLES K. MACKKLLAR K.C.M.G., M.L.C., PrcndenL 
THOMAS BUCKLAND, Rwj. 
CHARLES BINNLE, Esq. 
ROBERT L FAITHFULL, Esq., M.D. 
The Hos. JAMES T. WALKER. 
FRANC B. S. FALKINER, Esq. 
Thk Hos. REGINALD J. BLACK, M.LC. 

Juiiitvrw— W. H. PALMER, Eao., S. E. LAIDLEY, Esq. 

General Manager— Sir JOHN RUSSELL FRENCH, K.B.E 

Chief Inspector*— C G. ALFOUD, ' >SCAR LIXES. 
Divisional Jntpectort-B. 11. MOLINEAUX, L. WHITEHEAD, R. T. HILDKIL, W. POTI8, 

R. \V. B. BURiTAL. 
Chief AcanuUw**— W. K. SOUTH ERDEX. Secretary— J. A. BRYANT 

So««i<or»-M*8SB3. A [.LEX, ALLEN, & HRM3L8Y. 

tfecK/ Office-GEORGE STREET, SYDNEY. 

W. McRAE, Manager. \ W. H. SESDALL, J**i»rtan* </<w»a0w. 



MELBOURNE— RODERICK MT7RCHTSON, Esq., Adrimrp Director. 
E. R. RUSSELL, Manager. 



London Office— 29 THREADNEEDLE STREET, E.C. 

Directors. 
Su FREDERICK GREEN, K.B.E., Ch**ni%aii. HERBERT L. M. TRITTOX, Esq 

W. S. M. BURNS, Esq 
EL MELDRCM, A-etmo Manager. J, S. CAMPBELL, Astt. Manager. 

BANKERS' 

THh. BASE OK ENGLAND. LONDON JOINT CITY AND MIDLAND BANK LTD 

BARCLAY'S BAXK, LTD. 



357 BRANCHES AND AGENCIES 

New South Wales ... 182 New Zealand _ ... 56 

Queensland 51 Tasmania ... „ ... 3 

Victoria 42 Fiji ... 3 

South Australia 6 Papua 2 

Western Australia ... 11 London / 

With Agents and Correspondents throughout the World. 

Cable remittances made to, and Drafts drawn on, Foreign places direct. 
Foreign Bills negotiated or collected, Letters of Credit and Circular Notes 
issued, negotiable throughout the world. 



Vlll 



Agricultural Gazette of NIS.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




HIGHEST 
QUALITY ! 



IF YOU HAVZ FROM 500 TO 5,000 SHEEP TC SHEAR, THIS 

g£^> "Little Wonder" 

2-Stand Shearing and Crutching Outfit 

settles the question at once. 

For quality and price it stands unequalled. It is easily 
operated, strong and practical, and is remarkably low on fuel 
consumption. ' A Wonder" in every sense of the word. 

If you require further particulars write for 
illustrated leaflet describing the plant in detail. 

COOPER ENGINEERING CO., LTD., ,23 s S?h^! reet ' 



LOWEST 
PRICE ! 




Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N-.S.W. 



Mr. Orchardist— 

kj OW, when heavy crops are on the 
' » trees, comes your opportunity to 
mike good profits by getting the full 
yield from every tree to market in good 
condition. 

We can help you with : — 

WRAPPING AND LINING PAPER of the best 
quality to make your pack attractive. 

PICKING BAGS to save time and bruising. 

STEP LADDERS to simplify picking, no matter 
how high the trees or how steep the hillside. 

WOOD-WOOL to sa ve inj ury from rough handling. 

ALL TYPES of Peeling, Slicing, Coring and 
Quartering Machines to prepare fruit for Drying, 
Canning, Pulping, or Jam making. 

CANNERS of all sizes. 

PULPING Machinery. 

STEAM-JACKETED KETTLES, any size. 

Our Graders are the best, simplest, and the 
cheapest made. 

If you are interested in fruit drying you would 
do well to write or call at our warehouse — we 
have an expert to assist you. 

" EVERYTHING FOR THE ORCHARD " 

7-11 Market Street :: Sydney, 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



High Prices 



RECAUSE OF THE WORLD 

indications point to a high price 
but farmers in the wheat belt will be 
advantages of other crops next year. 

THE PRODUCTION OF MALTING 

below local requirements, whilst, since the 
South Australia has been established, with 

TOOTH & CO., Limited, 

are ^buyers of new season's N.S.W. 
suitable quality for malting, and farmers 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of NJS.W. xi 



for Cereals. 



SHORTAGE of Foodstuffs, present 
being realised for • this year's wheat crop, 
well advised not to lose sight of the 



BARLEY in New South Wales is still far 
war, an export trade from Victoria and 
prospects of great development. 

Kent Brewery, Sydney, 

Barley, both two-row and six-row, if of 
are invited to submit samples to them. 



Xll 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




Commomvealtb $anhfHii0tralia 



OPEN FOR ALL CLASSES OF 



General and Savings Bank Business 



IN THE 



PRINCIPAL CITIES and TOWNS of Australia, London 2 , 
and Rabaul (New Britain. 



General Banking Dcpt. 

Cable Remittances made to and Drafts 
drawn on foreign places direct. 

Foreign Bills negotiated and collected. 

Letters of Credit issued to any part of 
the world. 

Bills negotiated or forwarded for col- 
lection. 

Banking and Exchange Business of 
every description transacted within 
the Commonwealth, United King- 
dom, and abroad. 

Current accounts opened. 

Interest paid on fixed deposits. 

against approved 



Advances made 
Securities. 



Savings Bank Dept. 
Conducted at all Branches and at over 

3,049 Post Office Agencies in 

Australia, Papua, New Britain, 

Solomon Islands, and the Pacific. 
Minimum deposit, \s. 
Maximum Interest-bearing Deposit, 

£1,300. 
Rate of Interest, 3 J per cent, on amounts 

up to £ 1 ,000 ; 3 per cent, in excess of 

£1 ,000 and not exceeding £1 ,300 
Deposits or Withdrawals may be made 

at any Branch or Agency. 
Withdrawals may be made on demand, 

by post or by telegraph. 
Transfers arranged from place to place 

without loss of interest. 
Interchangeable facilities with P.O. 

Savings Banks in United Kingdom 

and New Zealand. 



PUBLIC SAFE DEPOSIT-SYDNEY. 



JAMES KELL Deputy Governor. Sir DENISON MILLER. K.C.M.G.. Governor 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. xiii 

1 

An Unique Service 
for the Pastoralist 



HPhe P.F. A. is not just a broker. It 
is an organisation of pastoralists 
banded together for the protection 
of pastoral interests in general. So 
complete is its organisation, so 
expert its staff, that it is able not 
only to transact its own business 
successfully, but also to place at the 
disposal of every pastoralist a sales 
service of unique value. 

Every year its books show an 
increased number of clients who 
realise, after a trial consignment, 
that the P.F. A. is the logical re- 
pository for their city business, 
because its interests and aims are 
identical with their own. 



The Pastoral Finance Assn. Ltd. 

Phillip Street Sydney. 






XIV 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



100% EFFICIENT 



"AUTO" 
Milking Machines 

Have Completely Revolutionised Machine Milking. 



T 



i" ( i 



HE "AUTO" VARIABLE PULSATOR 

eliminates the only prejudice against 
Machine Milking — each individual 
cow receiving 

PROPER MILKING TREATMENT. 

It 4s a well-known fact that some cows 
are "hard" and some are "easy" milkers. 
Hitherto no provision has been made for this 
variation. With the " AUTO " there is a 
separate Pulsator in each bail, working inde- 
pendently of each other, and by simply moving 
a lever, and without stopping the plant, the 

PULSATION IS INSTANTLY ALTERED 

to give a short or long pull on the teats. 
The Pulsators can be individually altered at will 

TO SUIT EACH C(M MILKED. 

The "AUTO" Cups are simple, easy on the 
cows, and easily and quickly taken apart for 
cleaning purposes. The removable rubber lip 
is a big improvement on metal rings. 



Cut out the Drudgery in the Cow Shed ! 
YOU ARE LOSING MONEY ! 

Write TO-DA Y and we will send you full particulars . 



The Farmers' Fertilizers Corporation, 



LIMITED. 



HUNTER STREET. 
SYDNEY. 



Mar. 2, 192L] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



CARBONATE OF 
LIME 



C P C 

FERTILIZER 

Is finely ground and is a combination of Carbonate and Hydrate of 
Lima This is the best and most economical way to apply Lime, as 
part is available for plant food immediately, and the balance later 
on as it is needed. 



PRICE — On trucks, Portland, 36 - per ton 
(14 bags). 

Present Freight Miles. In track lots. In ton lots. 

veiton ' 50 5/- 7 11 

100 6 6 13/7 

200 7/6 21/6 

300 9/9 26/4 

Single bags 6/6, delivered to any suburb of Sydney. 



IT'S USES ARE— 

To sweeten SOUR seils. It will CHECK all Fungoid Growths and pat all land 
in BETTER HEART. 

To SUPPLY LIME to soils DEFICIENT in this ingredient. 

To SUPPLY LIME to certain crops which require it in LARGER PROPORTIONS 

than are usually present in the soil. 

To provide the NECESSARY BASE for the growth of SOIL ORGANISMS, 
notably the NITRATE producing organisms, on whose presence the FERTILITY 
of the eoil largely depends. 

INCREASING the available POTASH and NITROGEN by liberating them from 
compounds already in the soil in Which these plant foods are locked up. 

To LIGHTEN and OPEN UP stiff clay soils. 

To ameliorate loose sandy soils, on which it has a BINDING ACTION. 

SAMPLE ON APPLICATION. 



The Commonwealth Portland Cemeot Co., Ltd., 

4 O'CONNELL STREET SYDNEY. 

The Makers of " Union " Cement. 



xvi Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921- 



BRUNTONS Buffalo Oval and Clan Round 
Galvanised High Grade 

STEEL FENCING WIRES 

Manufactured by Bruntons, Musselburgh, Scotland, 

JMSL- GIBSON & SONS, 

379 Kent Street .*. SYDNEY. 

i mile 5-wire fence, 12 1 14 gauge Buffalo, costs £22 us. 6d., and has 300-lb. greater 
breaking strain than No. 8 Galvanised, which costs £45 2s. 6d. for 1 mile 5-wire fsnce. 
Bruntons' wire shows a saving of 10s. in every £1, with 20 % greater efficiency, and 
66 % saving in freight, cartage, and handling. 

1 Ton of 12 x 14 G. measures 19 miles. 

1 Ton of No. 8 Galvanised measures 6 miles 360 yards. 
We also stock 11 x 13, 10 x 12 Buffalo Oval, which shows the same saving and greater 
strength over No. 6 and 7 ordinary fencing wire. 

BRUNTON'S HIGH GRADE FENCING WIRES HAVE THE 
FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: 



a. It costs £4/10/3 per mile less than No. 8 Gal. f. It is Heavily Galvanised, therefore lasts 

b. It is 20 % stronger. lon S er than ordinary fencing wire. 
C It is three times the length of ordinary G - II wiu not sa 8 after straining. 

Gal. Wire. h. It will keep your stock where you want them. 

d. It saves 66 % in Transit Charges. , lt Saves the Cost of Re-straining and 

e. Reduces Labour Charges in erecting fence. reduces Labour Cost. 



SAMPLES POSTED FREE ON APPLICATION. 



REX FLINTKOTE ROOFING 

The Best Bituminous Roofing on the World's Market. 

Sold in Rolls 32 inches wide by 81 ft. long. 

l-ply, per roll, complete with cement and nails 51/6 

a-piy ,, „ » » 63/6 

3-ply „ „ „ » 77/6 

r roll of Rex Flintkote Roofing covers 200 square feet, or the same space 
that 17 sheets of iron covers. 



The Ideal Roofing for Homes, Factories, Farm Buildings, etc. 

Can be laid by ordinary worker, will last a lifetime, and supp! 
clean water. 

Buy from your local Storekeeper, or direct from sole Agents — 



GIBSON & SONS, 

379 Kent Street .*. .*. .*. .'. SYDNEY. 

Samples posted on application. 
Factory Representative — 

WALTER HARRISON & Co., London Bank Building, SYDNEY. 

V — 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of NJ3.W. 



XTli 




A powerful aid on the farm. 

THE modern farmer knows that be can make more money by 
leaving the hardest tasks to machinery and devoting his time 
to easier and more profitable work than by spending his days in 
drudgery. 

The BUZACOTT 

F. &. J. Kerosene Oil Engine 

was designed specially to aid the farmer in countless ways. 

It will pump water from well, dam, creek, or bore, drive any 
kind of farm machinery within its power, drive electric light 
plants, or saw wood. 

Pitted with a first-class magneto, its strength is allied to 
efficiency. 

It is easily understood, and so simple in construction that its 
mechanism cannot become complicated. 

Write and ask us the best way to apply power to your particular 
needs. 

Particulars and specification on request. 

jjazacotf|C? 

7-11 Market Street, SYDNEY. 






xviii Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

FARMERS & GRAZIERS' 
CO-OPERATIVE 

Grain, Insurance & Agency Co. Ltd. 



Handle all our PRIMARY PRODUCTS 
with EFFICIENCY and EXPERT SKILL 
at a MINIMUM of EXPENSE. 



CO-OPERATION— and what it means 

»YOU 



COMPARE 
THE PAST 
WITH THE 
PRESENT. 



The future of CO-OPERATION is in 

YOUR HANDS— Be strong for it! 

Wire : Consign : 

"Grain" Sydney. "Farmers & Graziers'." 

Circular Quay, Sydney. • 



Mar, 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of 2Y.1S W. xix 



"DEADLUKE" Sheep Lick 

insures good health. 

Mr. J. BARWICK, Summer Hill, via Scone. 19 6 20. 

Please send one case of Deadluke Powder Lick. The quantity I 
purchased some months ago is nearly done. The sheep have kad 
better health since they had it, and it is only fair that we should give 
the credit to your preparation when we think that it deserves it. 

Later. 7/2/21. 
Please forward at your earliest one case of Deadluke Powder Lick. 
We are still very pleased with the health of the sheep since using your 
Deadluke Lick, and will keep it always before them. 



PRICES: F.O.B., SYDNEY. 
If 



DEADL-UKE'' LICK ° ne P acket ^ tne quantity to mix with 
in powder form one bag of coarse salt. 

6/- packet, 7/6 posted. £3/8/- case of 12 packets. 



Other " DEADLUKE " Lines are : •« DEADLUKE " DRENCH 
and " DEADLUKE " SPECIFIC SALT. Prices on request. 



F, S. GREER, 102 SUSSEX STREET, SYDNEY, 



Regarding Rabbits 



REMEMBER 



No one else can do your task, so to neglect it is a 
serious matter. 

Live up to the idea that even.- rabbit destroved 
means a better chance for your stock. 

If your LUCK isn't what st might be. put " P" in 
front of it, buy a SUDDETH FUMIGATOR, 

and try again. 



PRICES, subject to alteration without notice, F.O.B., Sydney. 

No. 2 Suddeth Fumigator and Smoker ... £7 
Suddeth Smo'^e Mixture, per box ... 15 6 

Carbon Bisulphide, per 5-gal drum ... £2 18 

VICTORIA ... Agents— NEWELL & CO., 1S9 King-street, Melbourne. 

S. AUSTRALIA... Agents— ELDER, SMITH & CO., Adelaide. 

SYDNEY ... Agents— BUZACOTT & CO., Ltd., 7 Market -street, Sydney. 

Manufacturer — ¥ ^-. 

F. S. GREER, 102 SUSSEX STREET, SYDNEY. 



XX 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



30 days FreeTrial 
on vour farm. 



I-TUNDREDS of dairy farmers are satisfied with 
■*-■*■ their dairying profits because they .do not 
know what they are losing with old or inferior 
separators. The daily count of lost cream taken 
over a whole year makes just that difference 
between struggling along and dairying with a good 
annual profit. 

Next to good stock every dairy farmer needs perfect 
separation to build his bank account. That's where the 
Diabolo comes in. It stops leaks, gets all the cream, gets 
best quality cream, turns and cleans easier than any other 
separator, and lasts a lifetime. 

Butterfat is more valuable than ever. Don't miss a scrap of 
it. Let us put a Diabolo in your dairy for a month at our 
expense. There's no obligation. Let it prove your past 
losses, stop cream waste, and 
increase your cream cheque. 
Write no.v for particulars. 



DIABOLO 

Separator Co. Ltd. 

Corner MARKET and KENT STS. 

SYDNEY. 



WWff^ 



DIABOLO separators 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



xxi 



COLD STORAGE WITHOUT ICE. 

the " TRAFALGAR " cold safe 

SOLVES THE PROBLEM. 



WHAT IT 
DOES. 



It keeps food Cool 
in the hottest 
weather, Milk 
retains its 
freshness, Meat 
and Cream are 
preserved by its 
action, and the 
worries of the 
Housewife are 
lessened by having 
one in the home. 




- 

-COLD SA rr 




IT HAS 

UNIQUE 

FEATURES. 

IT IS A 
NECESSITY IN 
COUNTRY 
DISTRICTS OR 
TOWNS. 

IT IS 

HYGIENIC, 
CLEAN, AND 
EFFICIENT. 



REMEMBER IT IS A COLD SAFE— NOT A COOLER. 



THE "TRAFALGAR" COLD SAFE 

IS made of Galvanised Iron throughout. It is absolute)? fly-proof, and car. be used as a 
refrigerator anywhere, water only being required, which is daily put in the receiving 
tank em top. It then automatically works itself by the dripping of the water through 
small tape on to the patent detachable gauze screens (see illustration), which fit into slots oa 
the four sides of Safe, the surp-us moisture being caught in a projecting tank at the 
bottom, which is supplied with a draining tap. There is no upkeep, only the first cost. 
Unlike the ice-chest, it can be used the wrole year round. When the hot weather is over, 
the patens frans* screens can be scrubbed and pot away until the following summer, 
leaving it a well-ventilated Safe for winter u«e. Over 3,000 sold in X.8.W. to satisfied 
Many have paid similar tribute as the following : — 



Mr. L. ECKFORD, Glenroy. via 
Millie, writes: — 

M You can confidently sell the Safe 
as a success." 



Mr. C. W. TAYLOR, Dalkeith, 
Uralla, writes : — 

•* I find it a splendid Safe, especially 
in hot weather." 



■at* is Asstraua la Bve sisss— COLLAPSIBLE. STOCKED BT ALL LEADING ST0BE&. 



DISTRIBUTING 
A6EIT 



S. W. O'NEAL, ^SISFL 



•PHONE-B 4S34S3. 



xxn 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




BDDOD 

SEPARATOR 



"THERE is probably no other 
» clean-skimming separator 
having as low a bowl speed as 
the " Domo." 

The circumference of the bowl 
is large in proportion to its height. 
It therefore develops enough 
centrifugal force — at moderate 
speed — to skim all those tiny 
butterfat globules which would 
be lost in any other type of bowl 
if rotated at the same speed. 

To give the necessary centrifugal 
force to a high and comparatively 
narrow bowl it must be geared up 
to abnormal speed. 

The skimming efficiency of such 
a bowl may be quite satisfactory, 
but the terriffic speed puts too 
much strain on all the moving 
parts, and "the expense for spares 
is very high. 

Because of its lower speed the 
"Domo" is very economical on 
spares, works silently and turns 
with less exertion. 

Other advantages of the " Domo" 
Separator are detailed in the 
Catalogue. Let us send you a 
copy. 



Skimming 
Efficiency 

at Moderate 
Bowl Speed. 




MODELS 18 to 16, 46 to 135 gall, 
per hour. 



The 



a 



Self 



Domo" is 
? -oi!eth 



More separators wear out 
through lack of proper ojling 
than from any other cause. 

This can not occur in the 
' ' Domo, ' ' because every working 
part is self-oiled from one sight- 
feed lubricator. 

There is not a single hole 
for direct oiling to be found on 
the ' ' Domo ' ' Dairy Model. 



The Domo Separator Co., 



Third Floor, 70 Wentworth-avenue 



SYDNEY. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



xxi 




All the year round 
FAIRBANKS-MORSE 

"Z" PUMPERS 

will give you good service. 



WHEN you get a ~Z" Pumper 
you don't just get a machine 
for pumping water and nothing 
else. You get a sturdy, reliable, 
economical pumper which can be 
hitched to any windmill pumprod 
in a few seconds, or can act in- 
dependently with * pump standard. 
When not required for pumping, 
two minutes work detaches the 
engine from the pump jack, and 
you have a 1| h.p. engine for all 
round work on the farm. 

And the engine-is a**Z." Specially 
designed to give full power on 
KEROSENE, it is surprisingly eco- 
nomical in its fuel consumption. 
Fitted with H.T, Magneto, trip- 
operated, it is always easy to start 
and sure to keep going. Has throt- 
tling governor, simple lubrication, 
no carburettor — is -water-cooled. 
The " Z " Pumper is made in two 
sizes. Write for full particulars 



DANGAR, GEDYE 1 CO. Ltd. 

16-18 YOUNG STREET. 
SYDNEY. 



XXIV 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



Destroying Rabbits 



How to do it effectively is fully narrated in our illustrated Booklet, 
which we will gladly post on application. 



We illustrate here our 

" IDEAL" 
Poison Cart 

a standardised machine which 
has freed thousands of men 
on the land from the rabbit 
pest. Great results are 
obtained when using " Ideal " 

Poison and "Ideal" Poison 
Carts 

"Ideal" Rabbit Poison is 

most economical to use — does 
not lose strength. Try it 
now. 




Ffrench's Patent Process 




is another most 
effective method of 
ridding the rabbits. 
It is a fumigator 
above all others. 
The fumes given off 
the patent process 
composition always 
fill the burrows from 
the bottom and pene- 
trate the farthest 
and deepest dead 
ends. 



We also manufacture : 
EAR MARKERS TROUGHING 

FIRE CARTS 
RABBIT PIT TRAPS SAW BENCHES 

SHEEP AND CATTLE BRANDS WATER CARTS 



T. H. HICKS, LTD., 



MAKERS 



HIGH ST., MASCOT, N.S.W. 



Mar, 2, 1921.1 Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 



XXY 



lA 



m 



CLEARING 



WITH THE AID OF 

NOBEL -GLASGOW 
HIGH EXPLOSIVES 



THE ATTENTION OF 

FARMERS, ORCHARDISTS, and other LANDOWNERS, 

« directed to THE "NOBEL-GLASGOW" SYSTEM 



Fullest particulars from the Agents : 

DALGETY & COMPANY, Ltd., 

15 BENT STREET, SYDNEY, 

or from local Storekeepers 



XXVI 



Agricultural Gazette of N.SM 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



TEL. : CITY 2WS. 

P.O. BOX »7 HAYWARKET. 



IMPORTERS OP 
WGflEST GRAM 
MACHINES 
FoR WEIGHING 
FoR TESTING 
FoR COUNTING 



jCimitcct 

S y dney M • S • W • 



TELEGRAMS: 

-SCAlfiOO," 

SYDNEY 

CONTRACTORS 

RoR MAWTKKANCE 
AND REPAIRS 
BY SPECIALLY 
TRAINED SCALE 
MECHANICS 



Representing 

W.&T.Averyl*? 
Parnall & Sons US 
J.Gartond & C? 
Alex. Wood & Sons. 
Henry Pooley h Son I!? 
EWllett & Son LI"? 
Hodqaon & Ste&d 



Yoof refantnca 



AP-23 



Brioches at 

Melbourne Vic 
WellioqtooN.Z. 
Brisbane Qu. 



February Hth, 1921. 



Mr. Primary Producer, 

C/o 'Hie Agricultural Gazette, 

EVERYWHERE IW NISI SOUTH WALES. 

Dear Mr. ( read your own nano here) , 

EASTER will, no doubt, find you in Sydney again, a visitor 
to the ROYAL, SHOT. 

izaongst the many things claiming your attention at the 
SHOW vill be an Exhibit of Australian Made Weighbridges and 
Weighing Machiaes. 

Nov, whether you have any use for a Weighing Machine of any 
kind or not, we give you a very hearty invitation to view this 
"ASCO" Exhibit. You will find it in Clydesdale Street at the 
Showground: "opposite the pigs". 



Feel free to drop in and have a look round; 
pleasure of making your acquaintance* 



give us the 



We are rather proud of our ASCO Australian Made Weighing 
Machines, the product of the only properly equipped Scale 
Factory in Australasia; the Australian Workmen who turn them 
out take pains to produce high grade Weighing Apparatus, using 
the best materials money can buy and putting in honest skilled 
workmanship. Have a good look at thee and judge for yourself. 



pigs". 



Don't forget to 3ee the "ASCO" Scale Exhibit: "opposite the 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



xxvi 1 



* REGO 

—BEPARA TOR 




Is the result of over x> years experience 

in the trade. Tt represents all the very best 

improvements and inventions, and can justly be asserted 

to stand at the very top in technical perfection. For this 

reason we are able to furnish an extraordinarily high guarantee 

of STRENGTH, DURABILITY and EFFECTIVE 

SKIMMING. 

DfMVHtG: 

This figure clearly shows that a more simplified and trust- 
worthy device could not be invented. 

ALL, parts are made of the very best material. 

THE CRANK-HANDLE speed is very low, and length of 
crank adapted for a comfortable movement of the hand. 




PRiCES 


Gallons £ s. d. , 

8 5 0' 
12 7 15 
18 10 0. 
22 11 
30 13 


Gallons £ s. 

33 15 
33 15 10 
46 19 5 
65 25 


d. 








LOOK HOW UNCOMPLICATED 
THE D-RIVING DEVICE IS. 



For further particulars see your 

Local Agent — 
or write — 

Gunnersen 
Crockett Ltd., 

379 Kent Street, 
Sydney. 



xxviii Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



THE NEW 



" CERES 

CREAM SEPARATOR. 



WE ALSO HOLD A SMALL STOCK OF 

" PERFECT " SEPARATORS 

45 to 80 gallons capacity. Price, £10 to £16. 

We are selling these to clear stock. 

WRITE FOR PARTICULARS. 



Farm and Station Suppliers. 

Barbed and Plain Fencing 

Wire, Galvanised Iron, &e„ 

at Lowest Rates. 

Agents for THE MIDLAND RUBBER CO. OF BIRMINGHAM. 

kt. -v iTT-rxT a \tt\ m The World's Best in 
MIDLAND Three Grades- 

— — — — — — — PRACTICE, 

TENNIS BALLS and the Super Ball 
— ^ — - — H CHAMPION." 

Agents for the 
PORT JACKSON ENGINEERING & BOILER SCALING CO. LTD., 

BALMAJN. 



E. D. PATON & CO. LIE: 

12 SPRING STREET, SYDNEY. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



XXIX 



LIGHT. STRONG & DURABLE 



Fire Fighters 



A 



m 



FEATURE that distinguishes the IXL 
FIRE FIGHTER, and which alone makes 
it worth £2 or £3 more than other 
makes, is the Nonspillable Manhole 
which prevents loss of water, and 
really means 25% more water when 
you reach the fire than is the case 
where other makes are used. 

Besides being invaluable in case of fires, IXL 
Fire Fighters may be turned to a variety of uses — 
such as washing buggies or horses, for carting 
water, or as shower baths. 

All the other good points about IXL Fire Fighters 
are given in our free illustrated leaflet. Send 
for a copy to-day and learn more about these 
reliable Fire Fighters. Also ask for particulars 
of IXL Water Carts. 



Geo. F. Fortescue & Sons, 

LIMITED. 

sole manufacturers, Arncliffe, Sydney. 



XXX 



Agricultural Gazette of y.S.W 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




Western Electric 

Power an* Light 

Makes the battery last longer 



HERE is a country home that is equipped with Western Electric 
Power and Light. A happy, contented family, miles from the 
City, yet enjoying every City comfort and convenience which 
electricity provides for your friends in the town. 

Every night they have the pleasure of electric lights at the press of a 
button — every day tho members of the family do their work in half 
the time because they have electrical hands to help them. 

These are only some of the -conveniences -of Western Electric Power and 
Light. Its advantages over other plants are -due -to the fact that the 
Battery is bigger and stronger, and it is so cared for that it lasts longer. 

Send for 20-page Hook which tells all about this wonderful plant. 



Western Electric Company 

(Australia) Ltd. 
IQ2 C«stlerea$? n Street, Sydney, 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of S.SAY. 



xxxi 



IS THE "H.C.L." COMING DOWN ? 



How long are- the prices of all that makes life comfortable to continue-? 
Just as long- ae> the world keeps up its present mad policy of consuming 
more than it produces. The worker of to-day draws twice the 
pre-war wages, but produces much less. Is it any wonder that the 
cost of living is so high ! When every Australian recognises that he 
must, in some way, produce more than he did in pre-war times, 
then, and only then, will the cost of living become reasonable Let 
the MAN ON THE LAND do his share by adding some side line 
to his present production, such as BUT TER, BACON, TURKEYS, 
and OTHER POULTRY. He need not fear an unprofitable market 
for all his produce. 

We have works scattered over the State, and 



Pay him cash in return for his produce 
at the highest market price of the day. 



Begin now by setting eggs liberally in anticipation of a 
BUMPER WHEAT HARVEST. When the crop is garnered the 
turkeys prove good gleaners, and soon grow into money. 

GET A FEW BREEDING SOWS, treat them well, and the 
progeny will more than pay your housekeeping expenses. 





Freezing Works: 




B LA THEY 

B0GGABRI 

BOOROWA 

CANOWINDRA 

CBOOKWELL 


DUBBO MOLONG 
GILGANDBA MILL7H0RPE 
GUNNEDAH ORANGE 
HARDER PARKES 
HUSWELLBROOK WELLINGTON 

Butter Factories: 


WARRIGAL 
TEOV A L 
TOUNG 
TASS 


■LATNET 


CANOWINDRA DUBBO 


PARKES 



Bacon Factory: 

ORANGE 



THE COUNTRY FREEZING COMPANY, LIMITED. 

Head Office— 70 PITT STREET, SYDNEY. 



xxxn 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



\For Your Wheat Crops} 

Sulphide Super 

—is RELIABLE. 




In New 
Sacks. 



Certain 
Delivery 



Special Manures for all Crops. 

Manufactured in New South Wales by 

THE SULPHIDE CORPORATION, Ltd., 

Works: Cockle Creek, N.S.W. 



and full particulars from your local Agent 
or from the Managing Agonf i 

GIBBS, BRIGHT, & CO., SYDNEY. 



Vol XXXII. Part 3. cj S^ m MARCH 2, 1921 







<riHKilf^ Ok 



. . THE . . 



AGRICULTURAL 
GAZETTE 



OF 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



Issued by Direction of 

The Hon. W. F. DUNN, M.L.A. 

Minister of Agriculture. 



W. H. BROWN, Editor. 



§ g JUttoritg : 
Sydney : W. A. Gullick, Government Printer. 



II _ 

•13003 -♦ 1921 " 



xxxir Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

At the Government Farm Schoois. 

special facilities are offered at the 
schools at the government experiment 
farms for instruction in agriculture. 

Courses from 6 Months to 3 Years. 

Low Foes. Comfortable Accommodation. Expert Tuition. 

HAWKESBURY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
Richmond. 

ASSOCIATED WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY. 
AGRICULTURE DIPLOMA COURSE— 3 years. 
DAIRY DIPLOMA COURSE— 2 years. 

Carrying the respective academic distinctions " H.D.A." and " H.D.D." 

Short Courses of 13 months on the ORCHARD, and 6 months on DAIRY, PIGGERY, and 

PO JLTRY. Carrying certificates on examination. 

Each Course gives a well-adjusted combination of Field Practice with Class-room Tuition. 

Two Sessions per Year, beginning January and July. 

Pees 

(including instruction, board and lodging] 

All Courses ... £16/10/- per Session. 



WAGGA and BATHURST STUDENT SCHOOLS. 

SOUND SYSTEMS IN MIXED FARMING. 

The Student performs the work of each Sectio 1 of the Farm, including SHEEP, CROPS, 

DAIRY, ORCHARD, POULTKY, PIGGERY, CARPENTERS *and BLACKSMITHS' SHOPS. 

two years* course for farm certificate. 

Fees 

(including instruction, board and lodging] 

First Year £20 

Second Year £15 



FARM APPRENTICE SCHOOLS 
at Cowra, Glen Innes, Wollongbar, and Grafton. 

A PRACTICAL COURSE FOR TRAINING LADS FOR FARM WORK. 

The Apprentices are trained in all branches of FARM, DAIRY, or ORCHARD work, and 

receive Lectures and Demonstrations in CROP GROWING and the 

Rearing and Management of LIVE STOCK. 

Fees 

• (including instruction, board and lodging] 

£10 for Six Months. (Admission at any date.) 



For further particulars, prospectuses, <kc., 

apply to — GEORGE V ALDER, 

Lands Office Building, Under Secretary and Director, 

Bridge- St., Sydney. Department of Agriculture. 



:• 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N'.S.W. 

Registered onder tire Copyright Act, 18T9. 

Editors of Agricultural ami Country Papers are especially united to reprodu c 
any of the articles contained in the J^ricttftnrai feaftttt, in whole or in part, 
making the usual acknowledgment. 

Contributions are only accepted upon the terra* that the Goternment may *ub96- 
qucntly publish the same in pamphlet form or otlierwUe. 
(I 2ml March, 1921. 



bfi£ SI 

CONTEXTS. 

Farmers' Experiment Plots— Wheat, Oat, and Barley Experiments, 19-0— pagp. 

North- western District Mark H. Reynolds 153 

Central Western District W. K. Birks 160 

Western District H. Bartlett 163 

Fcrther Reports ox Shearman's Clover E. Breakwell 1G7 

Field Experiments, 1920 — Grafton Experiment Farm ... ... H. Bryce 168 

A Grower's Testimony to Green Manuring ... 170 

Trials of Imported Cereals J. T. Pridham 171 

The Second Commonwealth Censcs 172 

Farmers Experiment Plots — Winter Fodder Variety Trials, 1920— Upper 

North Coast District W. D. Kerle 173 

The Culture of Sugar Cane in New South Wales (continued) 

A. H. Haywood 181 

Gallipoi.i Wheat under Local Conditions 134 

The R.A.S. Field Wheat Competition .. 185 

Influence of Milk Records on Prices of Cattle ... Wiiliam Stevensoa 190 
Popular Descriptions of Grasses (continued) — The Spear, or Corkscrew and the 

Wire Grasses E. Break well 191 

Annual Stud Pig Sale at Hawkesbury Agricultural College 196 

Ladybird Beetles and Potatoes W. W. Fio^gatt 19t> 

" Yema " Budding of the Vine H. L. Manuel 197 

Oat* and Barley as Poultry Foods James Hadlington 199 

The Influence of Atmospheric Variations on the Weight of Bagued 

Wheat F. B. Guthrie, G. W. Norris, and J . G. Ward 200 

Sprevd of Another Bad Weed J. H. Maiden 202 

Some Causes of Co-operative Failures C. C. Crane 203 

Thick or Thin Seeding for Wheat? R. G. Downing 20> 

Some Rk.sults from the Dsparthent's Grass Seed - 205 

Plants which Produce Inflammation J. H. Maiden 200 

Analyse-! of Saltbush F. B. Guthrie 202 

Points in Transportation of Bees W. A. (looJacre 210 

Pure Seed — Growers Recommended by the Department ... ... ... ... 21 1 

A Treatment fjr Tomato Wilt on Trial W. A. Birmingham 212 

Poultry Notes— March James fladlington 213 

To Destroy Brown Ants W. W. Froggatt 216 

Orchard Notes — March W. J. Allen and S. A. Hogg 217 

Vineyard Notes for March H. L. Manuel 219 

To Deal with Sparrows W. W. FroggatfT 21 9 

Agricultural Bureau op New South Wales — 

Suggested Subjects for Bureau Meetings ... ... ... 220 

The First District Conference ... 221 

Reports and Notices from Branches 221 

Agricultural Societies' Shows - _ ... 228 



xxxvi Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

FAMOUS 

RETFORD PARK JERSEYS 



CHAMPIONS and 
PRIZEWINNERS 



The Property of 

SIR SAMUEL HORDERN. 



THE herd at Retford Park has been established on 
its present basis since 1910, and the principal 
object held in view has been to combine capacity 
for Milk and Butter, together with constitution and 
symmetry ; the greatest care has been taken in the 
selection of suitable sires and the result is obvious 
to-day in a herd — second to none — with an official 
milk and butter record duly certified to by Government 
Officers under the United Breeders' Association Herd- 
testing Scheme. 

The herd won the Championship for Bulls in the years 
1912, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920 ; and for Cows 
in the years 1910, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1916, 1917 — a truly 
great record for such a short time ; and when taken in 
conjunction with its Official Milk and Butter Tests 
only shows that constitution and symmetry can be 
combined with utility. 

Full particulars of young stock apply 

THE MANAGER, 
Retford Park Stud, Bowral, N.S.W. 



VOL. XXXII. Part 3. MARCH 2 1921 

Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales. -2> 

Farmers' Experiment Plots* 

Wheat, Oat, and Barley Experiments, 1920. 



North-western District. 



MARK H. REYNOLDS, Inspector of Agriculture. 

The vields of wheat obtained throughout this district in the harvest just 
completed are perhaps the best ever recorded. Notwithstanding considerable 
lodging and rust, it was not uncommon for a return of 40 bushels per acre 
to be obtained. Considering the variable yields of the past few years, 
however, it is evident that, with the exception of the Inverell and New- 
England sections, the district cannot be regarded as ideal from the wheat- 
grower's point of view. The distribution of the rainfall throughout the 
year is not, as a rule, such as to be of most use to the crop, and harvesting 
is often delayed and prolonged by falls at that period. Many farmers have 
found a combination of fat-stock raising w ith cereal-growing to be more 
profitable. 

The soils of the district cannot be surpassed for their richness in plant- 
food ; indeed, they are in many localities too rich for cereal growing. For 
stock-raising it would be difficult to find a district more suited ; with a 
normal rainfall, a luxuriant growth of native herbage occurs from autumn 
spring, aud throughout the spring and summer eTery shower sets the 
native grasses moving. The growth of herbage and grass often attains a 
height of 2 feet, and occasionally much more. 

A few pastoralists and fanners have conserved in the past the bountv of 
nature, either as bush hay or silage, but the amount conserved may be 
likened to a drop of water in a bucket. The records show that in every 
good season following a drought, the country is covered for miles with 
herbage or grass according to when the rain occurs. In the season just 
closed the amount of feed lost by tramping into the soil, etc., would, on a 
broad estimate, have carried the whole of the stock in the north-west for 
two years without any further growth. One must conclude that the reasons 
why more fodder is not conserved are that in the majority of seasons there 
is a sufficiency, that the land is relatively cheap, and that fewer stock are 
carried to the acre than in districts where land is utilised more for 
agricultural operations, and is of greater value. 

Further work is nerded along the lines of suitable rotations of crops, 
cultural methods and varieties of cereals, and other crops suited to the 
diverse «oils and conditions of the district In these directions there is a 
large field open for investigation with excellent possibilities, either from a 
dry-farming or an irrigation-farming point of view. Concerning water supply, 

A 



J 54 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



there are wide stretches of country, principally traversed by th« Nan oi 
River, where shallow boring to 30 feet deep shows an abundant water 
supply, but little has been done so far to utilise this gift of nature. For 
stock purposes an abundant supply of water is provided over a large tract of 
country from deep-boring at Narrabri westward, and the whole district is 
well served with rivers and creeks that need only judicious weiring to provide 
amply for future droughts. 

The district is so extensive and has such a variety of conditions of 
climate, soil, and rainfall that practically the whole ambit of crops and 
fruits may be grown. 

The following farmers co-operated with the Department in carrying out the 
1920 variety trial of cereals : — 

W. H. Lye, Loomberah, via Tam worth. 

J. T. Maunder, "The Wilgas,'" Pallaniallawa. 

Win. Lennox, " Clairmont," Baan Baa. 

0. J. Ferry, Inverell-road, Armidale. 

VY. Butt, Red Bank Farm, Guyra. 

Bignold Bros., "Arlington," Manilla. 

R. A. Warden, Mount Russell. 

J. Perry, " Killara," Quirindi. 

J. C. Ormiston, "Glenfenzie, " Gunned ah. 

Jas. Cherry, "The Willows," Wee Waa. 

E< Bower, " Hampton Valley," Warialda. 

Wm. Palmer, " Pine View,'' Narrabri. 

R. A. Studd, "Glenair," Boggabri. 

Wm Bridge, Quipolly. 

Wm. Tonkin, " Garfield,"' i ittle Plain, Delungra. 

The following table shows the rainfall at the various centres for the glow- 
ing period. No records were obtained from Quipolly and Delungra ; in the 
latter case, however, the falls at Mount Russell will serve as a general 
indication . 



Month. 


5 


Baan Baa. 


Manilla. 


i 

1 


X 

OS 


Narrabri. 


"3 

J 


1 




e 

f 

~a 
S 
1 

"a 


U 

to 
o 

m 


April 
May 


pts. 


ptt. 

(ili 

1*7 


pts. 
25 


pts=. 


31 


pts. 


pts. 


pts. 


pts. 
110 


pt*. 


June 


705 


590 


712 




318 


782 


4 72 


658 


510 




July 


870 


•274 


169 


07 


7.') 


597 


:; ,8 


461 


316 


267 


August ... 


278 


12o 


317 


123 


273 


122 


202 


239 


119 


151 


September 


293 


256 


297 


His 


202 


188 


22 1 


256 


280 


304 


October ... 


170 


. i 


14.-. 


200 


806 


205 


231 


158 


423 


1-9 


November 


1 52 




16!) 


1 79 




1,897 


144 

!.(i:;s 


100 
I,SS1 


51 


83 


Total 


i.'.i.;s 


',1580 


1,834 


667 


1.20.-, 


1 809 


994 



The Plots in Detail. 

Mount Russell Mount Russell is at out 11 miles from Inverell, and has an 
elevation of 2,l'(>U feet ; the country is undulating. The soil of the plots is a 
dark chocolate loam, reasonably free working, of basaltic origin, and typical of 



Mar. 2. 1921.] 



AgrxcuUural Gazette of N.S.W. 



155 



a large area of the surrounding country. The site occupied by the plots was 
sown in 1919 to barley for green feed. This was. however, fed off early, and 
subsequently died out owing to the drought. In February, 1920, the land 
was ploughed i to 5 inches deep, and on 21st May the plots were sown 
without manure. A good germination resulted, and on 3rd and 4th August 
the growth was fed off by sheep, a mob of 500 being turned on to the 
paddock of 30 acres of wheat in which the plots were situated. 




A good crop of Bomea Wheat at Mount Russell. 



On 16th November the several wheats looked magnificent, being in the 
advanced bay stase. standing up well in height from 3 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft. 6in. 
having only a minor growth of weeds in the crop, and being free from black 
oats. Each variety was as level as a board. At this time Federation was 
markedly showing rust on stem and flag, causing slight pinching of the train 
but the other varieties were virtually free. 

The wheats were fit to harvest in the beginning of December, and were 
harvested on 12th and 1-irh of that mouth. All varieties were f.a.q. 
Canberra weighing 65 lb., and Bomen weighing 67 lb. to the bushel. 

Pallamallawa. — This locality is 7 miles from Biniguy on the Moree- 
Inverell lailway, and has an elevation of 900 feet above sea-level. The 
country is undulating, and the soil a red loam, fairly free working. The 
crop previously grown on the site of the experiment was wheat, which had 
been sown in 1919, but had failed. The 1920 plots were sown on 25th and 
26th May in a ■rood seed-bed. No after-cultivation was given, and feeding- 
off was not resorted to. The wheats attained a height of from 3 feet 6 inches 
to i feet, but lodged in patches, the worst in this regard being Canberra. 
Rust was most prevalent in Federation, and to a less extent in Hard 
Ft-deration, causing pinched and light grain in the former. The crop was 
harvested from 10th to 30th November. 



156 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Warialda. — The plot was located 15 miles from TVarialda, at an elevation 
of about 1,100 feet, and on undulating country, with a red, sandy, free- 
working loamy soil. Yandilla King, Bomen, (Jurrawa, and Marshall's Nd 3 
were sown on 18th May, and the other varieties on 27th June, on land that 
had been ploughed two months earlier. Feeding- off' was not resorted to, and 
prior to harvesting, which took place on 25th November, all the wheats that 
yielded well (particularly Canberra) lodged to a minor extent. The grain of 
Federation was badly pinched, and that of Hard Federation slightly so from 
the effects of rust. 

Wee Waa. — These plots were situated at an elevation of about 650 feet, on 
undulating and level country, consisting of a red, sandy, free-working soil. 
The land was ploughed shortly before sowing on 20th July. The wheats 
were not fed off. and attained a height of 2 feet 9 inches to 3 feet 6 inches. 
Federation was badly affected with rust, which, together with the late 
sowing, also affected the grain of Marshall's No. 3. Harvesting took place 
on 8th December. Slight lodging also occurred. 

Quipolly. — Situated on level country, with an elevation of 1,200 feet, the 
soil at this centre was subject to flooding, and was not typical wheat l*nd. 
The wheats were sown on 13th and 14th August, and were harvested on 
30th December. Feeding off was not resorted to. All the varieties lodged 
in patches, and were more or less affected by scalding (due to the land being 
swamped and subsequently setting hard) and by rust. The best quality 
grain was from Canberra, Currawa, and Hard Federation in the order 
named. 

Narrabri. — Located on slightly undulating country, at an elevation of 
700 feet ; soil, chocolate loam. In 1919 the 30-acre paddock (in which the 
plots were located this year) was sown to wheat with an application of 
56 lb. of ground rock phosphate to the acre. The wheat failed owing to dry 
weather, and this year this paddock yielded considerably better than any 
other paddock on the farm, due no doubt to the application of the ground 
rock phosphate in 1919. 

The varieties were sown in June, and harvested from 8th November. 
Feeding off was not resorted to. Canberra lodged in patches, and rust 
reduced the yield and pinched the grain of Federation. 

Manilla — Situated on undulating country, at an elevation of 1,300 feet, 
the soil being a free-working red loam. The previous crop was wheat, which 
failed in the drought of 1919. The plots were sown on 20th and 21st May. 
They were not fed off, and lodging occurred in all varieties. Canberra was 
most severely affected, and fully half the crop was lost. Bomen and 
Federation stood up best. Harvesting took place on 21st and 25th 
November, and a great loss of grain resulted for the want of a reaper- 
thresher. 

Baan Baa. — Situated on undulating country, consisting of red sandy loam; 
elevation, 800 feet ; wheat sown, 1st April, and harvested 8th December. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 157 

The crop was not fed off, and areraged 4 feet high. All varieties stood up 
well, excepting Canberra. The grain of all varieties was of good quality. 
The previous crop was wheat, which failed. 

Boggabri.— Situated on slightly undulating to level country at 800 feet 
elevation ; soil, dark red loam overlying clay subsoil about 7 inches from 
the surface ; previous crop, wheat, which failed. Sowing occurred on 2Srh 
June and 10th July. Rust caused pinched and light grain, except in 
Currawa, Canberra, and Hard Federation, which were the least affected, 
and were above f.a.q. Harvesting occurred on 16th December. 

Tamworth — Situated about 14 miles east from Tamworth on undulating 
country; elevation, about 1,300 feet; soil, free-working red loam. The 1919 
crop was wheat. The long season varieties were sown on 5th May, and the 
short season ones on 12th August. Feeding off was not resorted to, bur the 
wheats were standing well until 1st December. From then to 9th December, 
440 points of rain fell and caused considerable lodging and damage. A great 
quantity of grain could not be harvested. Apart from the varieties tested for 
the Department, Mr. Lye, the experimenter, had a number of other 
varieties on trial, the most promising being America 8. 

Delungra. — Situated on undulating country, at an elevation of about 2,000 
feet ; a dark chocolate and black heavy volcanic soil, rich in plant food, 
which contracts considerably in drying, causing the surface to crack and 
break up into somewhat coarse particles. The land was sown to wheat in 1919, 
but the crop failed. The wheat plots were sown on 7th May, and harvested 
on 23rd November. They grew 5 to 6 feet high and lodged considerably. 
No feeding-off was resorted to. Rust affected Federation and Bunyip, but 
with exception of Federation, the quality of all the other grains was verv 
good. Lodging was greatest in Currawa, Cleveland, and Florence. 

Gminedah. — Situated on undulating country at an elevation of about 900 
feet : soil, red free-working loam. The crop of wheat the previous year 
failed. The plots were sown on 5th June, and harvested on 2.*frd and 24th 
December. The wheats were not fed off, and attained a height of 3 to 4 feet. 
They stood up well to harvest, excepting small patches. Federation was 
affected by rust, the other varieties being practically free. Bomen was 
slightly pinched. The quality of the grain of all other varieties was verv 
satisfactory. 

Qmrindi.— Situated on level country, subject to flood ; soil, a dark, free- 
working, rich loam. The heavy rains of June and July damaged the crop, 
and later rains caused extensive lodging, so that no comparative results were 
possible. 

Dumaresq and Guyra. — The experimenters cut these partly for hay and 
partly for threshing at a later stage for grain. These districts do not grow 
wheat for grain sufficiently to warrant further grain trials in the near future. 
Thev are more interested in tests with oats. 



158 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



General. 
No manure was supplied on any of the plots. The results show that 
generally, where Federation was sown before June, it was not seriously 
affected by rust. The reaper-thresher harvester played a useful part in 
saving a large percentage of the grain from lodged crops. 



Results of Wheat Variety Trials. 









, 




































1 




1 






Variety 


3 
t 


s 
I 


4 
1 


i 


73 


■e 

e 

s 


'3 


1 
c 

3 
O 


1 

■a 

B 

e 
s 
3 


03 
1 

s 

J 

"3 


i 

be 

1 
9 


•E 

x> 
m 
be 
B 





P 


8 


s 


Z 


Z 


fc 


Of 


s 


O 


Cu 


Q 


a: 




i bus. 


bus. 


tins. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


bus. 


Marshall's 


No 3... 


36 


27i 


16 


344 


30 


224 


44| 


23 


284 


... 


26 


Yandilla K 


ing ... * 


37* 


27 


194 


38i 


36| 


244 




29 


:84 


... 28 


Federation 


..." 30 


33| 


284 


12 


l-t| 


24| 


19J 


37f 


23j 


264 


31 


15 


Hard Fede 


ration j 31 4 


4H 


30| 


23 


24 


4H| 


28 




314 


314 


372 


33 


Canberra . 


.. 1 36 


46 


23| 


29 


374 


42 


20 


55 


284 


52 


27f 


35 


Florence .. 


* 








- 










344 


26f 




Bomen 


* 


434 


324 


25 


32 


333 


21 


44 


214 


344 


334 




Bunyip . . 


* 








264 










27 


24 




Currawa .. 


* 


374 


26" 


214 


334 


33 


20f 




28J 




24 


28 


G enoa 


• 












5f 








... 


16 


Gresley .. 


* 




31J 


20 








20 




22" 




•• 


27 


Marquis .. 


"' 23 














12 


31f 




284 




18 


Sunset 






















374 






Clarendon 






... 
















374 






Cleveland 








... 
















36f 


... 



* Badly damaged. 

Malting Barley. 

The 1920 season for oats and barley in the north-western districts was 
generally very unsatisfactory, owing to the crops lodging, through being 
very weak in the straw, owing to the favourable growing conditions. Not 
only on the experiment plots, but elsewhere also, lodged, tangled crops of 
barley and oats were the rule. 

The areas of barley were not extensive, but a considerable number of 
farmers had from 10 to 50 acres under crop, having been encouraged to plant 
by the various brewers. More often than not the most satisfactory method 
of garnering the grain is to cut the crop with the reaper and binder when 
the grain is still in the dough stage and to protect the sheaves either by 
careful stooking or stacking until fit to thresh. The average farmer depends 
on stripping to garner, and the season just closed was not suited to this 
method. The loss from lodging, together with the relatively low market 
price of barley, will cause a big reduction in cropping next year. 

Plots were established at the following centres: — 

W. H. Lye, Loomborah, via Taniworth. 
.1. T. Maunder, Pallamallawa. 
R.. A. Studd, Uoggabri. 

The varieties tested were : Kinver, Goldthorpe, Golden Grain, and (at 
Tamworth only) Mackie's Chevalier. 



M.ir. -J. l'.»-21.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 159 

T'liinrorth. — Soil, well prepared red loam, .veriyiug retentive subsoil about 
10 inches from t!ie surface. N"o manure applied ; sown 7th May, 1920 
Yields per acre: Kinver, 39f bushels ; Goldthorpe, 35^ ; Golden Grain, 41 ; 
Mackie's Chevalier. 34. 

A rate of seeding trial was conducted at this centre (variety, Chevalier) 
with the following results : — 

Sowing at 30 lb. seed per acre vielded 33 bushels 15 lb. 
40 lb. „ „ * „ 34 „ 10 „ 
501b. „ 34 „ 46 ,. 

Of the three centres, the results here were most satisfactory. They give 
no indication of the yield of farmers' crops generally in the Tarn worth 
district, the plots being harvested prior to 12th December, when there were 
four wet days. The rain caused great damage to all crops not harvested, 
and affected the majority of those in the district. 
Smut was prevalent, especially in Goldthorpe. 

Pallamallaica. — Sown 25th and 26th flay; harvested 10th to 30th 
November. Xo manure applied. The plots here were very promising to 
within a fortnight of maturing, when caterpillars caused destruction. 
' Heavy rain followed by high velocity wind caused extensive lodging, aud 
only small portions of the crop were saved. Smut was also prevalent in 
this plot. 

Boggabri. — Sown 26th June, harvested 16th December. Only portion 
of the crop was saved, damage being caused by conditions similar to those 
at Paliamallawa, Goldthorpe yielded 32 bushels per acre, and Kinver 
19 bushels. 

Oats. 
Plots were established at the following centres : — 
W. H. Lye, Loomberah, via Tamworth. 
J. T. Maunder, Paliamallawa. 
R. A. Studd, boggabri. 
W. Lennox, Baan Baa. 
O J. Perry, Armidale. 
Hill, Robertson, and Butt, Guyra. 

The varities used were Sunrise, Algerian, Guyra. and White Tartarian. 

Tamuorth. — Sown, 10th May : harvested, 16th December. This crop was 
most promising until 10th December. Later, lodging was caused bv four 
days' rain, and only a portion of the crop was saved. Yields per acre : — 
Algerian. 38 bashete 20 1b.: Smrise, 36 bushels 101b.: Guvra. 35 bushels 
251b. 

Paliamallawa. — Sown, 25th and 26th May. Lodged so badly that only a 
few bushels were harvested, and no comparative results were obtainable. 

Boggabri. — Sown, 28th June. Likewise lost through extensive lodging. 

Baan Baa. — Sown, 1st April. Excellent growth and promise of high 
yield of grain until late in November, when rain storms completely flattened 
the crop, and little seed was saved. 

Guyra an'/ Armidale. — The several varieties were cut for threshing, and 
the results w ill not be available for some time. 



160 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



Central Western District. 

W R. BIRKS, B.Sc. (Agric), Inspector of Agriculture. 

The farmers who undertook to conduct the cereal experiment plots for hay 

and grain in this district for the season just past were : — 

G. J. Douglas, " Fairfield," Coonabarabran. 

Granowski Bros., " Mooren," Binnaway. 

J. Mathias, Oban Soldier Settlement, Coolah. 

Robinson Bros., Tallawang. 

F. S. Stacey, " Combandry," Gulgong. 

J. Welsh, Mudgee. 

N. S. Meek, Hobby's Yards. 

H. Leabeater, Lyndhurst. 

H. J. Thompson, " Tilga," Canowindra. 

The Season. 
In common with other districts the fallow period and sowing time were 
exceptionally dry, and all early sown crops throughout the district came 
away together after the early June rains. The subsequent distribution of 
the useful rainfall is indicated in the following table : — 





June. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


Total. 




inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


Coonabarabran ... 


12.16 


7.16 


2.65 


3.60 


.99 


2.26 


28.82 


Coolah 


5.78 


9.56 


2.27 


2.19 


.53 


1.80 


23.13 


Tallawang 


7.57 


5.33 


2.55 


4.33 


.64 


1-.94 


22.36 


Gulgong ... 


4.32 


5.16 


2.49 


1.60 


.66 


2.83 


17.06 


Mudgee .. 


5.61 


5.16 


3.58 


3.57 


.HO 




19.02 


Hobby's Yards .. 


5.42 


3.49 


5.14 


3.42 


1.55 


1.14 


21 28 


Lyndhurst 


5.46 


3.64 


5.76 


3.10 


2.34 




20.87 


Canowindra 


4.05 


. 2.83 


3.10 


2.27 


1.88 


.75 


14.88 



Thus the winter months were abnormally wet and the August and 
September rainfall sufficient ; October was sufficiently dry to ward or! the 
threatening attacks of rust, though this was scarcely so in the cooler, later 
districts (for example, Coonabarabran) as far as late sown crops were 
concerned. Susceptible varieties such as Federation, especially when sown 
after the middle of June, suffered very seriously as a result of rains in the 
middle of November, and eventually in some instances as much as 80 per 
cent, of the promised yield was lost. The plots under consideration, however, 
were all planted in good time, and although some loss no doubt occurred, 
nothing approaching a complete failure was experienced. 

The "finishing" rains were everywhere satisfactory. 

Under these circumstances no special inferences can be drawn from 
different methods of preparation of the land prior to seeding. The benefits 
of following were completely marked as regards yields, but by no means so 
in point to cleanliness and freedom from such diseases as smut and take-all. 

The heavy weather generally experienced throughout December not only 
reduced the yields (in some instances to the extent of two bags or more per 
acre), but also impaired the value of the results as an indication of the relative 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



161 



yielding capacities of varieties. In some cases the harvesting of the plots 
themselves extended over a period of a week or more, and the losses due to 
rain were by no means uniform. 

The Yields. 

The actual results of the various tests are set out in the following tables : — 

Wheat Variety Trials — Grain. 





Binnaway. 


Tallawang. 


Coolah. 


Cooua- 

barabran. 


Gulgong. 


C»nowin- 

dra. 




bus. 


lb. 


bus. 


lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. 


lb. 


bus. lb. 


Canberra ... 


45 


30 


38 


20 


29 50 


27 10 


29 


20 




Yandilla King 


40 


40 


29 


10 


40 10 


24 25 






21 20 


Hard Federation . . 


39 


30 


35 


20 


26 30 


21 30 


30 


10 


25 


Federation 


35 


25 


36 


30 






28 


45 


27 30 


Marshall's No. 3 . . 


39 


50 


27 


40 


33 15 


26 50 


21 


25 


13 10 


Currawa 


29 


15 


34 


50 


27 








24 40 


Greslev 


33 









* 




24 







Firbank 


26 


10 








23 40 








Pennv 


23 


35 














26 25 


Florence 


22 


20 


24 


40 




31 50 


18 







Marquis 










30 45 


17 50 








Genoa 












23 45 









Wheat and Oat Variety Trials — Hay. 





Hobby's Yards. 


Lyndhurst. 


■ 
Mudgee. 




t. c. q. 


t. c. q. 


t. c. q. 


Wheats — 








Canberra... 


2 5 




3 3 


Florence ... 






3 1 2 


Marshall's No. 3 


4 4 1 




2 8 1 


Zealand ... 






3 1 1 


Firbank ... 






3 2 


Yandilla King ... 


2 18 




2 15 1 


Oats- 








Algerian ... 


4 6 2 






Guyra 


4 5 


3 12 1 




Lachlan ... 


...... 


4 3 3 




Ruakura ... 




3 13 3 




Sunrise 


3 13 1 


3 11 3 







Oat Variety Trials— 


-Grain. 








Coonabarabrun. 


Tallawang. 




bus. 


lb. 




bus. 


lb. 


Sunrise... 




40 


10 








Algerian 




30 


25 




17 


30 


Guyra ... 




28 


35 




22 


20 



162 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921 



The results, taken generally and in conjunction with the experience of 
many farmers throughout the district, indicate somewhat of a triumph for 
Canberra, Yandilla King and Hard Federation wheats, and for Sunrise oats. 
These are varieties that are usually relied upon to stand adverse conditions 
in the form of drought, and it is a striking tribute to their general excellence 
that they were able not only to respond to the favourable conditions of 
growth of a season such as that just passed, but also to "stand up" in 
unfavourable harvesting weather. It is, further, a fortunate and creditable 
accomplishment in the development of local varieties, that this group of 
cereals fulfils the normal requirements of the average farmer of the district, 
viz., an early, late, and mid-season wheat, and a hardy, quick-maturing oat. 

Federation still maintains its pride of place only in certain localities, and 
those usually the more favoured as regards rainfall ; while Marshall's No. 3, 
Zealand, and Florence show special adaptability as hay wheats in certain 
localities. 

Manurial Trials. 







Hobby's Yards. 

Sunrise Oats 

for Hay. 


Canowindra. 
Hard Federation 
Wheat for Grain. 


No manure ... 

28 lb. Superphosphate 
42 ,, 


t. c. 
3 7 


q. 

2 

i 


2 
I 


bus. lb. 
20 25 

23 10 




25 


56 „ 

56 ,, Basic Superphosphate ... 
84 ,, SupernhosDhate 


3 13 

4 3 

3 18 

4 3 


20 40 
20 50 


112 ., 


fixture 




117 „ P7IY 









These trials are too incomplete and isolated to allow of general deductions. 
However, there is indicated the advisability of employing light dressings of 
superphosphate (up to £ cwt. per acre) in the general wheat-growing areas, 
whereas in the cooler districts on the tablelands heavier dressings will 
probably give remunerative returns. 

Rate of Seeding Trials. 





Gulgon£. 


Canowindra. 


Tallawang. 


42 lb. per acre 


bus. lb. 
27 


bus. lb. 
26 40 


bus. lb. 
34 20 


60 „ „ 


SO 10 


25 


35 20 


72 ,, „ 


33 10 


18 30 


22 25 



The variety used was Hard Federation in all three 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 163 



Western District. 

H. BARTLETT, Assistant Inspector of Agriculture. 

Wheat and oat variety trials were conducted with the undermentioned 
farmers during the season 1920 : — 

D. A. Rich, "Rozalene,"' Curra Creek, Wellington. 
L. J. Broughton, "Berrimah," Mendooran. 

J. Parslow, Collie-road, Gilgandra. 
W. Werner, " Pinefield," Nymagee. 

E. P. Quinn, " Tarella," Narromine. 

S. Reilley, junior, "Enrimbla," Roadside. Eurimbla. 

E J. Allen, Gregra. 

W. W. Watson, " Woodbine,"' Tichborne. 

R. Shelton, Elm Vale, Nelungaloo. 

E. A. Draper, Harris Park, Alectown West. 

J. M. Connor, Ootha. 

K. J. 0. Berryman, Botfields. 

M. F. Dalton, " Duntry-league," Orange. 

Cultural Notes. 
Wellington. — Mouldboard-ploughed 4 inches deep, December, 1919; 
cultivated with spring-tooth, February and March. Sown, 3rd June with 
60 lb. wheat seed and 84 lb. superphosphate per acre. Harrowed during 
August. 

Mendooran. — Disc-ploughed 4 inches deep, October, 1919 : harrowed, 
February : cultivated with spring-tooth, February. Sown, 6th, 7th, and 
8th May, 1920, Avith 45 lb. wheat. 50 lb. oats and 42 lb. superphosphate 
per acre. 

Gilgandra. — Ploughed first week in December, 1919 ; harrowed, February : 
cultivated with spring-tooth, April. Sown, 3rd and 4th May, 1920, with 
60 lb. wheat, 50 lb. oats and 28 lb. superphosphate per acre. 

Xorromine. — Disc-ploughed 4 inches deep, September: cultivated with 
spring-tooth, January and April and just prior to sowing. Sown. 21st and 
22nd June, 1920, with 45 lb. wheat. 60 lb. oats (unmanured) and 30 lb. 
superphosphate per acre. 

Eurimbla — Mouldboard-ploughed 5 inches deep, December. 1919 ; 
cultivated with spring-tooth, March. Sown. 19th April, 1920. with 60 lh. 
wheat and 56 lb. superphosphate per acre. 

Gregra. — Disc-ploughed 4 inches deep. December, 1919 ; harrowed 
December: cultivated with spring-tooth. March and April. Sown, 18th 
May with 60 lb. wheat, 60 lb. oats and 28 lb. superphosphate per acre. 

Tichborne. — Ploughed December. 1920: cultivated with spring-tooth, 
June. Sown, 3rd June, 1 920, with 60 lb. wheat and 56 lb. superphosphate 
per acre. 

Xdungaloo. — Disc-ploughed 4 inches deep. September, 1919 : cultivated 
with spring-tooth, December and April. Sown, 19th and 20th April with 
60 lb. wheat. 60 lb. oats (except Sunrise 80 lb.), and 28 lb. superphosphate 
per acre. 



164 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W . 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



Alectown West. — Mouldboard-ploughed 4 inches deep, September, 1919; 
harrowed, December and March. Sown, 17th and 18th March, 1920, with 
60 lb. wheat, 60-70 lb. oats, and 20 lb. superphosphate per acre 

Ootha. — Ploughed 4 inches deep, July, 1919 ; cultivated with spring- 
tooth. April. Sown, 28th and 29th April, 1920, with 45 lb. wheat, 50 lb. 
oats, and 50 lb. superphosphate per acre. 

Botfields. — Mou Id board -ploughed 5 inches deep, November ; cultivated 
with spring-tooth, January ; harrowed, April. Sown, 21st and 22nd May, 
1920, with 45 lb. wheat, 40-50 lb. oats per acre. No superphosphate. 









Results of 


Variety Trials. 












\ g 

o 


c 
I 


c3 


a 






• 


c 
o 
































Variety. 


it 


o 

o 

TJ 
C 
0} 

53 


C 
| 

5 


3 
o 




I 


1 

a 

P 


B 

a 
55 


< 


I 


T3 

"3 

3 




bus lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. lb. bus. lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. lb. 


bus. lb. bus. lb. 


Canberra 


10 41 


32 3 


38 59 


10 42 


55 48 i 26 45 


28 26 


34 16 


31 16 


26 57 38 43 


Hard Federation . 




34 47 


3S 56 


30 28 


.. 27 47 


23 53 


26 26 


23 5 


24 22 32 47 


Federation 


18 29 


82 6 


35 39 


9 22 


39 2 28 6 




23 46 


27 47 


26 53 2'J 48 


Yandilla Kins; 




30 7 




5 39 


38 4 i 28 40 




23 42 


29 16 




Marshall's No. 3 . 


15 55 


29 9 




4 SS 






21 58 






Currawa 




34 3 


38 1 


7 


82 18 


27 18 


24 7 






■ 


Bomen 












21 38 


22 10 


17 38 




27 35 


Bunvip 




29 35 












22 55 




25 50 ! 33 46 


Florence 




36 36 




4 14 








28 33 


24 49 


.. 


Penny 










26 14 


29 46 










Firbank 






3 60 
















Gresley 


.. 1 .. 




♦. . 












27 18 


31 18 


Marquis 
















21 41 






Red Wings 


10 42 




.. 
















Algerian (oats) 






Nil. 








37 7 


Nil. 






Sunrise ,, 


.. | 60 17 


33 2 


„ 




44 30 




20 2 




28 5 


Guvra ,, 


40 38 




„ 








89 38 




33 46 


Kinver (barley) . 


.. 


"• 












19 3 





Manurial Experiments. 
Manurial trials with superphosphate in varying quantities were conducted 
with the following results : — 



Locality. 


Variet >- Manure. 






Superphosphate per acre. 






20 1b. 


28 1b. 


30 1b. 


40 1b. 


42 1b. 


50 lb. 


66 1b. 


Mendooran 
Nelunpaloo 
Alectown West . . 
Ootha 
Narromine 
Nymagee . . 


Canberra.. 
Hard Federation 

Canberra . . 


bus. lb. 
27 31 
20 33 
24 2 
19 47 
5 56 
• 


bus. lb. 
29 20 

26 56 


bus. lb. 
26 "20 


bus. lb. 

23" 5 
10 "42 


bus. lb. 

26"&8 
lo" 2 


bus. lb. 
32 3 
27 56 


bus. lb. 

2fi"57 
12 26 


bus. lb. 
34 50 
23 14 



* See hay yields. 

Rate of Seeding Experiments. 
A rate of seeding experiment with Hard Federation wheat was conducted 
by Mr. E. J. Allen, Gregra, and resulted as follows : — 

Seed per acre. Yield. Seed per acre. Yield. Seed per acre. Yield. 
lb. bus. lb. lb. bus. lb. lb. bus lb 

47 ... 31 24 60 ... 27 47 77 ... 31 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



165 



Variety Trials for Hay. 
Hav variety trials were conducted in three districts, the yields being as 
follows : — 



Locality. 


Var 


Yield per acre. 






t. 


c. 


q. lb. 


' 


Turvey (wheat; 


3 


7 


3 IS 


Orange 


Bomeu ... 


, 3 


S 


3 4 




Algerian (oats) 


3 


11 


2 21 


: 


I 


— 


14 







Canberra (wheat)* ... < 


•2 

•2 


15 

16 




1 




( 


2 


17 


2 




Florence! 


2 


12 


2 


Nymagee ... ... ■{ 


i^resley 


3 


2 





] 


Hard Federation 


g 


11 


1 




Federation 


2 


4 


3 




Sunrise (oats)... 


3 


5 


3 


1 


Guyra ... 


2 


17 


3 


I 


Algerian (left for grain) 


32 bus. 


33 1b. 






t. 


c. 


q. lb. 


r 


. Firhank .wheat 1 


1 


14 


1 10 




, Florence 


1 


11 


2 18 




' Hard Federation 


1 


16 


3 15 


Mendooran ... ...-( 


; Bomen.. 
YandiLla King 


1 

1 


17 


3 6 

2 12 




Sunrise (oats)... 


1 


15 


4 




Algerian 


1 


8 


3 13 


1 


Guyra . . 


1 


15 


1 6 



* Ihese plots of Canberra wheat were manured with 30, 40. 5'>, and 60 lb. superphosphate respectively. 
t This plot was manured with 30 lb. superphosphate. 

Notes on Varieties. 

The wheats that have been most successful during the past season are 
Canberra, Hard Federation, and Federation. Canberra is a recently-produced 
varietv : it is suitable for all parts of the western district, and promises to 
exceed in popularity even the well-known Federation. Hard Federation is 
also greatly in demand, and many of the record yields have been obtained 
with it. Gresley is a promising variety, and yielded well where tried. 
Marquis is not recommended for the western district. It may lie mentioned 
that in the variety trials at Xarromine, Hard Federation was harvested prior 
to the December rains ; the remainder of the wheats were not harvested till 
January, and were lodged so badly that only a small proportion of the grain 
was secured. 

The oat variety trials were not a success, the plots being damaged by the 
December rains to such an extent that it was impossible in some cases to 
harvest them, while in others only a portion of the grain was secured. 

In all cases increased yields resultei from the application of super- 
phosphate, and this practice can be confidently recommended. As to 
quantities, it may be reckoned that the drier the district, the less the amount 
necessary per acre. For example, 56 lb. per acre is recommended in the 
Wellington district, but only 40 lb. at Parkes, and only 28 lb. at 
Condobolin. 



166 Agricultural Gazette of N .S.W . [Mar. 2, 1921. 

General Comments. 

The past season has been abnormal in more than one respect. Prior to 
this season, fields of from tea to sixteen bags have seldom been anticipated 
and very rarely realised in the western district, but the harvest just past 
has resulted in such yields being the rule, and not the exception. 

What can such high yields be attributed to 1 Hardly to the general 
high standard of farming methods as practised, for in many cases where the 
seed-bed was prepared from stubble land with the spring-tooth cultivator, 
yields were obtained equal to those from well worked fallow. To understand 
the significance of this fact, a study of the climatic conditions during the 
years 1918 to 1920 is necessary, for the facts will be still found to demon- 
strate the value of the fallow. 

During 1919, a wise optimist assured farmers that droughts were essential 
for the success of the Australian rural industries ; that apparently land- 
holders' one aim was to take from the land and give nothing in return ; and 
that a drought was nature's method of resting the land, enabling soluble 
plant-food to accumulate, and thereby to produce crops and pastures of 
untold abundance after the drought was broken. He argued that i 1 lost 
during the dry spell was worth £2 when good seasons returned. 

The optimist's views mostly provoked a derisive smile ; the idea of profits 
that were to be deferred and multiplied made no appeal to the hard-up 
agriculturist, who was very sure that £1 in his pocket during 1919 was 
preferable to the prospect of £2 in 1921. But is the essential argument of 
the optimist far out ? If the wheat-grower would only take nature's "tip," 
and farm with due regard for rainfall and climatic conditions, the hardships 
associated with droughts would be considerably lessened. In the inevitable 
prospect of recurring droughts there should be a decided incentive to the 
development of a scientific system of rotations and mixed farming. 

The years 1918-19 were drought years. Crops were sown, and the small 
growth which resulted had no chance of producing a grain crop, and so was 
fed off to save starving stock. Owing to the absence of rain, the soil remained 
in a fairly open, loose condition ; what growth of crop was produced was 
partly returned to the soil in the form of manure. In short, nature prac- 
tically fallowed the land for two years, while the farmer had to use his wheat 
crop as a fodder crop. The farmer desired a wheat crop, and nature forced 
him to try mixed farming — wheat — fodder crop —fallow. Not a great success 
during 1918-19, perhaps; but what about 1920? 

Fallowing not only conserves moisture. Plant-food must be in a soluble 
form before it can be utilised by plants, and it is continually becoming con- 
verted from the insoluble to the soluble form. This change takes place most 
rapidly when tin- soil is in an open, loose, and quiescent condition, such as 
obtains when it is resting under fallow. The soluble plant-food is not then 
washed from the soil, but is stored in such a way that the following crop 
gets the benefit of all that has become available during the preceding twelve 
months. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 167 

A large amount of moisture is neee-sary to produce a heavy crop. During 
1920 the western district had ample during the growing period. Nature had 
fallowed for two years, and the farmer had also fallowed. Both fallow* were 
dry at seeding time, and a> the onditions of the seed-bed were almost equal, 
similar crop results were to be expected. 

The rainfall during growth was ample : but without the forced fallow, and 
consequent storage of soluble plant-food, such high yields would not have 
been possible. The fact that fallowing conserves moisture is too well known 
to need comment, hut it is desired to stress the point that fallowing also 
accumulates soluble plant-food. It may be remarked here that when the 
fallow is clean the best implement for preparing the seed-bed is the spring- 
tooth cultivator. 

Another factor which contributed to the successful harvesting of such high 
yields after the severe storms of early December was the varieties of wheat 
that were grown. Fully 70 per cent, of the wheat grown in New South 
Wales consists of varieties produced by the Department of Agriculture. At 
times the Department has been criticised adversely for rejecting varieties 
that have yielded well in certain seasons, but it must be remembered that 
the aim of the Department is to produce varieties of all-round excellence, 
taking into consideration milling quality, yield, and resistance to disease and 
adverse weather conditions, and it must be obvious that unless a variety 
reaches the standar.l required it is unwise to recommend it. 

A general guide when selecting varieties is that in the more favoured 
districts, such as Wellington and Molong. midseason and even late wheats 
may be safely grown, but where the rainfall is less, such as at Parkes and 
beyond, it is advisable to sow midseason and early wheats. 



Further Reports on Shearman's Clover. 

The identification of this clover as Trifolium fragiferum var., as reported 
previously in this journal, has now been confirmed by the Kew authorities. 
Of the promising reports recently received concerning it, the following are 
important : — 

Mr. M Heraring, Smithtown, Tasmania — "The Shearman's clover which 
I planted on the swamp is a complete success. The land is indifferently 
drained. This year there was no warm growing weather until Christmas 
week, and up to that time strawberry clover and Shearman's made equal 
growth. Immediately the warm weather started, Shearman's clover sent 
out magnificent shoots and walked right away from the strawberry." 

Mr. EL R Jones, Crabbe's Creek, North CV»ast — "Shearman's c^er was 
planted in May in portion of a drained swamp. It is now making good 
progress and spreading rapidly."' 

Mr. R. V. Simpson, Stonehenge — "Shearman's clover is growing well in 
heavy black basaltic soil, and is decidedly promising." 

The Director of Agriculture, Tonga, reports that this clover is growing 
well. Other reports and personal inspections show that it is doing well in 
swampy situations or moist soils at Grafton, Holbrook, Milton, Comboyne, 
and Richmond. — E. Break well, Agrostologist. 



168 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Field Experiments, 1920, 

Grafton Experiment Farm. 



H. BRYCE, H.D.A., Experimentalist. 

[The Experiments Supervision Committee, under whose control these experiments are 
being conducted, wish to draw the attention of farmers to the fact that final conclusions 
cannot yet be drawn from these trials. The trials are conducted from year to year, and 
these interim results are published for the information of farmers.] 

Wheat Variety Trial. 
The object of this experiment, which is being continued from year to year, 
is to determine the most suitable varieties of wheat to grow for quality and 
yield of hay in the Clarence River district. 

The 1920 plots were one-eighth of an acre in area, and were situated on 
black alluvial soil of similar character to that of some of the Clarence River 
flats. Some of the varieties grown were not those usually recommended for 
hay on the coast, but they were used because of the shortage of seed of the 
varieties commonly grown for the purpose. It will be seen that though the 
crops were subjected to a severe test by the very wet season, the yields of 
these varieties were such as to render the crops quite profitable. In future 
years it is hoped that seed of more rust-resistant varieties will be available. 

The experiment comprised a trial of four varieties, viz. : — Canberra, Hard 
Federation, Marshall's No. 3, and Thew. Canberra was sown on every third 
plot as a check. , 

Preparation and Sowing. — The land was ploughed up in November, 19 In, 
and allowed to lie fallow for six months. Cultivations were given after each 
fall of rain to preserve the mulch and destroy weed growth. The land was 
disced and harrowed before being sewn with a wheat drill on 15th May, 1920, 
at the rate of 56 lb. per acre. The soil was in excellent condition and ger- 
mination on all plots was good. 

The Season. — The season was an excellent one, and good rains fell through- 
out the growing period, though, on 16th and 17th September, heavy 
thunderstorms occurred and lodged the crops. Details of the rain which fell 
during the growing period of the crop were as follows : — May (loth to 31st), 
22 points ; June, 179 points ; July, 309 points; ; August, 54 points ; September, 
368 points ; October (1st to 4th), 4 points, making a total of 936 points. 

Harvesting. — The crop was harvested on 5th October. Canberra gave the 
highest yield, and the remaining varieties yielded well. Rust was prevalent 
in all varieties, and Thew and Canberra were badly lodged. 

The following table shows the yields per acre : — 



Variety in Order of Merit. 


Yield per acre (per- 
centage yield). 


Average of check plots (Canberra) 

Marshall's No. 3 

Thew 

Hard Federation 


t. c. q. lb. 
4 3 1 12 
4 1 2 21 
3 19 21 
3 18 1 11 



Mm. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 169 

Winter Fodder Trial. 

With the object of determining the most suitable cereal (or combination of 
cereal and legume), to grow for winter fodder in the Clarence River 
district, this experiment is carried out annually. The natural herbage of 
this district is at its lowest in the winter and early spring months, and some 
provision should be made by farmers to have a green fodder crop available 
to cope with this period of scarcity. 

The area of each plot was one-eighth of an acre, and the experiment com- 
prised a trial of three varieties of oats. Sunrise, Guyra. and Algerian ; two 
varieties of wheat. Marshall's No. 3 and Thew. Grey tield peas and Golden 
vetches were the legumes used. 

Pr-ijaration and Sowing. — The land was ploughed in Decern ber. 1919, and 
allowed to lie fallow for three months : frequent cultivations were given to 
-erve thv moisture supplied by the heavy rains that were experienced 
during the months of December, January, and February, and to destrov 
weeds. Sowing wa- commenced on 26th March, 1920. The soil was in 
excellent condition, and the germination was good throughout. The field 
peas and vetches were sown by broadcasting them on their respective plots, 
and then, as the cereals were sown through the wheat drill, the drill 
covered the vetches and peas. 

The combined rates of sowing were as follows : — Oats 36 lb. per acre, 
wheat 30 lb., tield peas 20 lb., and vetches 1 a lb. per acre. Sunrise oats 
was sown erery third plot as a check at the rate of 56 lb. per acre. N 
fertiliser was applied to any plot. 

The Season. — The season was an excellent one, and good rains fell through- 
out the growing period of the crop, as follows : — March (26th to 31st), 50 
points ; April. 293 points : May, 283 points : June, 179 points : Julv, 309 
points : August (1st to 13th), 34 points, making a total of 1.148 points. 

Harvesting. — The plots were harvested with the reaper and binder, on 
13th August. The Algerian oats, being a late variety, was not harvested 
till loth September, to allow the crop to attain its full maximum height. 

The following table shows the yields : — 

Variety and rate of seeding per acre. 

Sunrise, 56 lb. (Check) 

Sunrise, 36 lb., and vetches 15 lb... 

Sunrise, 36 lb., and 6eld peas 20 lb. 

Sunrise, 56 lb. (Check) 

Algerian, 36 lb., and vetches 15 lb. 
jerian, 36 lb., and held peas 20 lb. 

Sunrise (Check | 

Guyra, 36 lb., and vetches 15 lb. ... 
Guyra, 36 lb., and field peas 20 lb. 

Sunrise (Checks ... 

Marshall* No. 3, 30 lb., and vetches 15 lb. 
Marshall's Ho. 3, 30 lb., and field j:eas 20 lb 
Sunrise ( Check) 

Thew, 30 lb., and vetches 15 lb. ... 
Thew, 30 lb., and field peas 20 lb. 
Sunrise ( Check) 





Yield per acre. 


t. 


c. 


q. 


lb. 


... 9 


19 


1 


14 




10 


16 


o 


2i 




11 





■-> 


8 




9 


8 


a 


8 




8 


19 


2 


24 


... 


9 


1 


1 


24 




9 


IT 


1 


2+ 




10 


1 


a 


12 




10 


3 


"> 


24 




9 


13 





16 




9 


9 


i 


20 


). ... 


9 


12 





16 


... 


9 


16 





16 




9 


IS 


l 


20 




9 


19 





12 




9 


12 


■2 


24 



170 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



Conclusions. — The varieties made excellent growth, and the field peas and 
vetches showed up well in the various plots. Sunrise oats and field peas 
produced the heaviest yield (as they did in the 1919 experiment). Guyra 
also yielded heavily, and the check variety (Sunrise oats alone) produced 
•creditable yields. With the exception of Guyra, which was slightly affected, 
all varieties were free from rust. 

Winter Fodder Manurial Trial. 

A winter fodder manurial trial was carried out with the object of 
•determining the most suitable fertiliser, or combination of fertilisers, to 
apply to winter fodder crops. 

The land was ploughed in November, 1919, and cultivated to destroy 
weeds and conserve moisture. It was disced and harrowed on 12th May, 
and sowing was commenced on 15th May, 1920. Sunrise oats, sown at the 
rate of 60 lb. per acre, was the crop used. The manures were sown at the 
same time through the fertiliser attachment of the wheat drill. Check plots 
were left unmanured every third plot. 

The growing period was the same as the wheat variety trial, and the 
rainfall table given above for that trial therefore applies to this experiment. 
Germination on all plots was good, and the crops made rapid growth. 

Harvesting commenced on 5th October, and as the crop was badly lodged, 
considerable difficulty was experienced. The results were as follows : — 



Fertiliser used per acre. 



Increase over j ,.. . 

Yield per acre. average of check . i 

plot. increase * 



Cost of 
increase, t 



Net result per 
acre. 



Superphosphate 2 cwt. 

Bonedust 2 cwt 

Superphosphate 1 cwt. 
Superphosphate 1 cwt. and 
nitrate of soda 1 cwt. ... 
Average of check plot 



t. c. q. lb. 

8 12 1 11 

9 2 3 20 

8 13 2 



t. c. q. lb. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

1 1 18 I 1 1 i 12 

1 11 2 27 1 11 7 14 

10 2 9 10 7 6 



8 10 3 10 19 2 17 

7 11 21 



19 



1 16 



s. d. 

9 7 gain. 

7 7 „ 

* 7 ,; 

16 5 loss. 



* Green fodder valued at £1 per ton. 
t Superphosphate valued at 6s. per cwt., bonedust at 12s. per cwt., and nitrate of soda at 30s. per cwt. 



A Grower's Testimony to Green Manuring. 

Writing on the value of green manures in orchards on the Murrumbidgee 
Irrigation Areas, Mr. A. N. Shepherd, Assistant Inspector of Agriculture, 
related that Mr. J. Hetherington, Leeton, was very emphatic in his testi- 
mony to the l>enefit derived by his trees from a single crop sown and 
ploughed under last year. As a result, this settler intends this year growing 
green crops, preferably tick beans, right through the orchard. When it 
raggeated quite lately that the good season might have made the 
difference in his orchard this year, Mr. 1 [etherington very quickly pointed 
out a plot that had not had a crop ploughed in, and certainly the trees there 
did not look as well, nor had they made growth equal to those where the 
trial had been- conducted the previous season. 



Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 171 



Trials of Imported Cereals. 



J. T. PRIDHAM, Plant Breeder. 

In ■•ooperation with the Royal Agricultural Society, the Department has in 
recent years imported from Canada and the United States several varieties- 
of different cereals which are apparently being profitably grown in those 
countries, the object being to see how they would behave in New South 
Wales. They were tried last season at Cowra Experiment Farm, where it 
was patent that most of them were quite unsuitable for our conditions. 
Those that appear to have some possibilities of usefulness in this State will 
be continued under trial. 

Oats. — The variety O.A.C. "2 was sown on 16th April, and headed nearly^ 
six weeks later than Lachlan, sown on the same day. The straw was coarse 
and the grain very pinched and thin. 

Sixtv Day came into head about the same time as Lachlan, but the straw 
is weak. As compared with Sunrise, the grain is light and the yield rather 
inferior. The variety cannot be recommended. 

Fulghum is a very eark oat, ripening quite as early as Sunrise, with a 
smaller head, but better stooling habit. The straw is of medium height, 
and the grain brown, rather plump and shorter than Algerian. It is worthv 
of further trial, and requires to be sown at the same time as Sunrise. 

Banner came into head about the same time as O.A.C 7i'. and, like that 
variety, it is too late for our climate. Even in the cooler districts other sorts 
would on the average give better returns. 

Wheats. — In accordance with many years' previous experience. Earlv Red 
Fife and Glyndou Fife came into head at least five weeks later than such a 
variety as Hard Federation. They both have weak straw, and the grain 
shatters readily, though the quality of the grain is excellent when well 
grown. 

Rock came into head five and a half weeks later than Hard 
Federation, and the grain was very pinched. 

Kanred headed later than Red Rock, and is of apparently the same 
character. 

Kharkov heads slightly later than Red Rock and Kanred. All three 
wheats are bearded and have rather weak straw. Their season of ripening 
is too late for our wheat districts. 

Fultz is a beardless variety, four and a half to five weeks later than 
Hard Federation ; it also is too late to*be recommended for use here. 

Marquis, sown on 16th April, came into head nearly a fortnight later than 
Hard Federation. This wheat has fairly strong straw, though slender, and 
does not shatter. It might be grown in the coolest wheat-growing districts 
of the State, but its yields have not \et justified its recommendation to- 
farmers. The quality of the grain is excellent. 



172 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Burbank and Super, two wheats produced by Mr. Luther Burbank, of 
Santa Rosa, California, came wit"h a very high reputation for yield, but 
tests here have shown that they come into head about six weeks later than 
Hard Federation, and produce light, pinched grain. They stool heavily with 
white felted heads and red-coloured, soft grain. They would be heavy yielders 
under favourable conditions, and might bo of service to us when crossed 
with early varieties, but as they stand they cannot be recommended. 

Mealy wheat is very like the above, all three being reported by Professor 
J. A. Clark, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.A., to be related to Jones' 
Winter Fife, a wheat we have grown in previous years and have proved 
unsuitable for our conditions. 

Yeoman (the seed of which was received from Mr. J. P. Shelton (now 
studying in America), was produced by Professor Biffen. It headed six 
weeks later than Hard Federation and a fortnight later than Marquis. It 
is quite unsuitable for the wheat-growing areas of this State, though, judging 
by the head and stout straw, evidently a most productive sort in England. 

Fenman is also one of Professor Biffen's recent productions, and the 
remarks upon Yeoman equally apply to this. It is even later than Yeoman, 
for it came into head seven weeks later than Hard Federation, the grain 
being extremely pinched and light. 

Barleys. — O.A.C. 21 is of about the same season as Skinless, but it stools 
rather less and has tall straw, which is strong for a barley. The ear is 
bearded and of the six-row type ; the grain is of a greenish tinge and well 
filled. It succeeds under irrigation, and should be a good barley for early 
fodder. Having a rather brittle neck or top internode, the crop should not 
be left to strip when quite ripe ; as many heads will snap off. If possible, the 
crop should be cut and threshed when wanted for grain. For fodder and 
silage Skinless barley appears to yield a')out as well, but the O.A.C. 2 L is 
well worth further trial. 



The Second Commonwealth Census. 

Thb second census of the Commonwealth of Australia will be taken as at 
midnight between Sunday, 3rd April, and Monday, 4th April. So 
momentous have been the events of the last decade ; so great their effect upon 
population; and so extensive the changes in industrial and social conditions, 
thai special interest may properly be felt in the event. A similar under- 
taking will engage the inhabitants of practically all parts of the British 
Empire at about the same time, and it may justly be said that it is a <*reat 
Imperial stock-taking that is approaching. Were it a mere counting of 
heads it would be a matter of importance, but Mr. G. H. Knibbs, Common- 
wealth Statistician, in a little brochure on the subject, points out that it is 
B good deal more than that. The results, in fact, are of such significance 
nationally and socially, that it is of first importance that the information 
supplied should be accurate. The appeal is therefore made by the Federal 
authorities that care should be exercised in tilling in the forms, and that no 
person should be omitted nor any question inaccurately answered. 



Mat. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



173 



Farmers' Experiment Plots. 

Winter Fodder Variety Trials, 1919-20. 
Upper North Coast District. 

W. D. KERLE, Inspector oi Agriculture. 

Results of experiments with winter fodder crops sown during 1920 are 
available from the following nine centres in the Upper North Coast 
district : — 

F. G. Gibbin, Burrapine, Nambucca River. 
Henry Short, Dorrigo. 

E. Green, The Risk, Kyogle, Richmond River. 

G. Long, Tatham, Richmond River. 
C Oliver, Yorklea, Riclunoud River. 

M. J. Reedy, Warrell Creek, Nambucca River. 

E. Amps, Camira Creek, Grafton. 

Mrs F. T. Johnson, Condong, Tweed River. 

F. Allard, Brooklana, Eastern Dorrigo. 

Season and Cultural Methods. 

The yields were most satisf actor y and well above the average, but the 
season was an ideal one, particularly for late-sown plots. The extremely 
dry conditions of 1919 gave place to those of the other extreme in January 
of 1920, and heavy falls of rain were experienced each month up to 
November. The chief difficulty lay in sowing the crops, the dry intervals in 
autumn being short and infrequent. The early spring rains were unusually 
heavy, and were largely responsible for the yields being above normal. 

The following table shows the rainfall for each centre during the chief 
months of growth : — 



1920. 



;i|iinc. 


6 






: 


- -. 




- 


pfit 


« 




5 



*s 



March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October . 

November 



Pts. 


Pts. 


Pts. 

267 
427 


Pts. 
49 

25S 

49- 


Pts. 


Pts. 

... 


Pts. 


Pts. 

279 
554 


Pts. 


134 


192 


159 


•225 


210 


148 


226 


374 




401 


634 


435 


435 


440 


431 


382 


952 




•24 


41 


92 


SO 


91 


57 


142 


160 


51 


257 


502 




... 


301 


348 


25S 




534 


503 


671 






320 


308 


290 




520 

562 



Total inches 



13-19 20-40 13-80 1545 1362 12"92 1298 



2319 16.67 



The yields obtained from the various fodder ciops are shown in Table A. 
Trials with artificial fertilisers at six of the above centres are tabulated in 
Table B. 



174 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



qrs 


lb. 


2 


11 


1 


23 


2 


21 



The amounts of seed sown per acre were : — Wheat, oats, and barley, 
2 bushels ; when sown with field peas, 1£ bushels; peas, \ bushel. The most 
satisfactory amount of cereal per acre to sow with field peas as a combination 
crop is a matter of much controversy among farmers. In order to throw 
some light on the subject a trial was made on the property of Mr. M. J. 

Reedy, Warrell Creek, which resulted as follows : — 

tons cwt. 

Thew wheat, 2 bushels and grey peas i-bushel =6 10 

„ l|-bushels and grey peas |-bushel =6 13 

,. 1 bushel and grey peas ^-bushel =7 17 

It will thus be seen that the higher the quantity of wheat applied the lower 

the yield, due, no doubt, to the peas having more room and making 

more luxuriant growth. The soil on which the experiment was sown was 

not very fertile and the yields for this crop were low. Further trials of this 

nature will be made here and at other centres to determine conclusively the 

most suitable amounts to apply. 

The Plots. 
Bnrrapine. — Soil, sandy alluvial loam ; previous crop, maize ; germination, 
excellent ; soil preparation, thorough. The season being particularly favor- 
able in this locality, the yields were exceptionally high. The plot of Hard 




Plot or Sunrise Oats at Brooklana, Eastern Dorrlgo. 
The yield was 12 tons 8 cwt. 2 qrs. 

Federation and grey peas, which occupied pride of place with nearly 19 tons 
to the acre, presented a particularly fine appearance, but only slightly better 
than the plots of Firbank and Thew with grey peas. The success of the 
plots in t.h< sc experiments was largely due to the absence this year of rust, 
the bugbear of the coastal wheat-grower. This disease was present, but only 
slightly. Hani Federation, Yandilla King, and Canberra wheats, and Sunrise 



Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N. SAY. 175 

and Guyra oats being affected. Although Hard Federation has done so well, 
it must be remembered that it is subject to rust, and should not be sown in 
place of Thew or Firbank, which (although occupying second and third places 
this season) are comparatively rust-resistant, and will give better results over 
a number of year-. 

Dorrigo. — Soil, red volcanic, free working : previous crop, potatoes ; sown 
21st June, 1920. The chief feature of the experiments in this locality was 
the superiority of the oats in comparison with the wheats. This was largely 
due to the wheats being patchy, owing to infertile patches in the soil. The 
highest yield of oats was obtained with Guyra, which gave an approximate 
increase of a ton over Sunrise and Ruakura, and 2 tons over Algerian. It is, 
however, much coarser in the stem and not nearly so suitable for chaff as the 
other varieties, Ruakura in particular. The increase in the growth of 
Algerian oats w r ith the addition of artificial fertiliser was remarkable, 2 cwt. 
of P7 mixture giving a yield of 13 tons 15 cwt. 3 qrs., and an increase of 
almost 6 tons over the unmanured plot. All other fertilisers gave substantial 
increases, the smallest (1 cwt. of superphosphate per acre), giving an increase 
of 2 tons 15 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 lb. 




Firbank Wheat at Tatham. 
Yield : 3 tons cwt 2 qrs. 16 lb. 

Kyoyle. — Soil, alluvial loam ; previous crop, wheat ; soil preparation, two 
ploughings and three harrowings ; germination, excellent. The results from 
this centre were very satisfactory, the success of Algerian oats being most 
marked. The combination crops yielded remarkably well, with the exception 
of Firbank and Canada peas, the peas growing remarkably well until cut 
off by frost in July. The effect of frost was most marked in Bomen and 
Florence wheat and Skinless barley, but, despite the adverse influences, the 
last-mentioned gave a very excellent yield. Hard Federation proved the 
highest yielding wheat, rust being entirely absent this season. 

Tatliam. — Soil, alluvial loam : previous crop, maize ; germination and 
stooling, satisfactory ; tilth, excellent. The experiments here were sown 
early (19th Mnrcli) ; the growth was rapid, and the yields very satisfactory. 
The plots of Thew with field peas and vetches looked particularly well 



176 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W . 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



during growth, and eventually yielded well. Either of these legumes can be 
recommended for growing with Thew and other rust-resistant midseason 
wheats for the production of feed for dairy stock. Canada field peas are 
too early in maturing and do not make nearly such luxuriant growth as grey 




Sunrise us at Tatham. 
Yield : 11 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs. 261b. 



peas. Rust was bad on Hard Federation (which otherwise was the most 
uniform of all plots) and slight on Marshall's No. 3, all other varieties 
being practically free. Frost was severe on Bomen wheat and Guyra oats, 
the heads being severely damaged. 




Thew Wheat at Tatham. 
Yield : 7 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr. 11 lb. 

Yorklea. — Soil, dark volcanic ridge, porous nature and medium fertility ; 
previous crop, maize; preparation, once ploughed, twice harrowed ; medium 
tilth ; germination excellent. Ample rainfall favoured the oats in particular, 
ami the plot of iSunrise was exceptionally fine for the locality. It eventually 



Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 177 

yielded nearly 2§ tons per acre more than the next best plot. Hani 
Federation and grey peas was an excellent plot, and was fed chaffed to dairy 
stock, with an instant increase in the milk yield. Barley did not do at all 
well in comparison with other cereals. 

Worrell Creek. — Soil, clay loam, medium fertility ; previous crop, maize ; 
stalks chaffed, and soil disc-ploughed, 24th May ; disc and tine harrowed, 
. May. and seed broadcasted on 24th June : tilth very good, soil in 
moist condition : germination satisfactory : stooling poor. The growth 
cf these plots rather poor and spindly, due, in a measure, to heavy rain 
causing the surface to set hard. The oat plots looked much superior to the 
wheats at harvest time, being fully a foot taller. 

The increase with fertilisers was not so marked as the appearance of the 
soil seemed to warrant. It wa<. however, substantial, being 1 ton 3 c*t. in 
the case of 2 cwt. of P8 per acre a-i on^r comparatively low yields. Yandilla 
Kins. «ith which the fertiliser trial was sown, is liable to rust and is short 
in the straw, and is, therefore, unsuitable for coastal conditions. Fiibank 
grew to h height of 4 feet 6 inches, and appeared to be the best of the 
wheats in the matter of uniformity of growth and cleanne>< <f straw, 
eventually yielding the highest. 




Thew Wheat at Kyogle. 
Yield : 6 tons 12 cwt. 1 qr 21 lb. 

The growth of held peas was very poor. Canada peas being practically 
non-existent where sown with Yandilla King, and grey peas being spindly 
and stunted. The failure of these legumes is most probably due to deficiency 
of lime in the soil, which is of a clayey nature and undoubtedly sour. 

Camira Creek. — Soil, sandy, of poor quality ; preparation, thorough ; pre- 
vious crop, maize : germination, satisfactory. The season favoured quick 
growth, and the vields were very good for such a poor class of soil. The 
increase due to fertiliser was nearly 100 per cent. Such increases are 
common with all crops in this locality. The yields of oats were very creditable 



178 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W.. [Mar. 2, 192k 

Sunrise, the highest yielding variety, producing 10 tons 17 cwt. qrs. 
16 lb per acre. All varieties were manured with 2 cwt. of superphosphate 
per acre, the fertiliser being broadcasted previous to sowing the sefd, and 
covered with two harrow ings. 

Oondong. — Soil, alluvial, typical of Tweed river banks ; previous crop, 
maize ; preparation of soil and tilth, good. The germination of plots sown 
with new seed was excellent, but a number sown with seed held over from 
che previous season, through becoming infected with weevil, germinated too 
uneveidy to enable accurate and comparative r» suits to be procured. 
Ruakura oats, with a yield per acre of 10 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs. 8 lb., made the 
best showing, and looked particularly plea»ing during growth. This oat is 
very much liked by farmers for hay, owing to its fine stems and abundance of 
leaf. The results from the fertiliser trials here show that even on the alluvial 
soil of the Tweed a substantially increased crop may be obtained from the 
use of suitable manures. 

Brooklana — Soil, yellow, basaltic formation, porous; previous crop, potatoes; 
preparation of soil, three ploughing* and three harrowings ; tilth good and 
germination excellent. The trials here were confined to three oat varieties and 
artificial fertilisers with Algerian oats. The sowing was made very late, but 
the elevation of the Eastern Dorrigo plateau being some 2,000 feet, suitable 
weather was experienced and the yields were very high for the district.. The 
crop was converted into hay in December and will be utilised for the winter 
of 1921. Guyra yielded the highest, but a superior quality of hay was made 
fr.m both Sunrise and Algerian. An increase of 2 tons 11 cwt. per acre was 
obtained from the use of fertiliser. While this is substantial, the increase is 
usually greater in this locality with all farm crops. It is, however, one that 
would doubly repay cost of the fertiliser applied even under the isolated posi- 
tion of the plateau, where the cost of haulage greatly adds to the expense. 

Summary. 

The chief features of the foregoing trials are the comparatively high yields 
of all cereals, the superiority of oats, and the success of varieties new to the 
district. With regard to the latter, Hard Federation, Yandilla King, 
Marshall's No. 3, and Canberra were sown largely to replace Huguenot, 
Cleveland, Warren, and Clarendon, all varieties of proven value in relation to 
rust-resistance and yield for coastal conditions, but seed of which was not 
obtainable last year. The good crops of Hard Federation, Yandilla King, 
Marshall's No. 3, and Canberra were due to the absence of rust this season. 
Had weather conditions favoured the spread of this disease the yields would 
have been decidedly reducci I. Unless trials in succeeding years prove them 
to be more rust-resistant than they are generally believed to be, their adop- 
tion in place of such thoroughly tested varieties as Thew, Firbank, Huguenot, 
Florence, &c, is not recommend 

With regard to oats, (Juyra has not been included to any extent in coastal 
trials in previous years. Although it out-yielded Algerian at five centres 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N .S.W , 



179 



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180 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S. W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



out of eight, its coarseness of straw and leaf, its leaf discolouration (which is 
most marked), and its susceptibility to rust makes it inferior for green feed, 
and particularly for hay. 

The combination crops of cereal and legume most suitable for dairy stock, 
from the standpoint of milk production, are grey field peas or vetches, with 
Thew, Bomen, Firbank, and Hard Federation wheat. The combination of 
oats and peas has not been so successful, a comparison of grey peas with 
Algerian oats and with Thew wheat at Kyogle showing an increase of 3 tons 
16 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lb. in favour of the latter. 

With regard to the trials with artificial fertilisers, it is noteworthy that 
in all cases increases in yield were obtained. These increases ranged from 
1 ton 2 cwt. 3 qrs. 12 lb. to 5 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs. 10 lb., and represent a 
substantial margin over cost of application. 

The results of these experiments generally, beinir more or less consistent 
with previous trials, form a valuable index to suitable winter and early spring 
fodders for local farmers. It is surprising that so many dairy farmers rely 
solely on their pastures, knowing full well they must be inadequate at some 
period of the year. A frequent excuse for not growing cereals is that they 
have been tried, but without success. Failures can usually be traced, how- 
ever, to inferior seed and an ignorance of suitable varieties. Farmers are 
too apt to visit the nearest store and take whatever wheat is in stock (even 
chick-wheat), instead of taking advantage of experiments such as these (con- 
ducted solely for their guidance), and ordering suitable varieties from reliable 
sources. 

Results of fertiliser trials. 





Dorritro. 


Brooklana. 


Warrell Ck. 


Camira Ck. 


Yorklea. 


Condong. 




Algerian 
Oats. 


Algerian 
Oats. 


Yandilla 
King Wheat. 


Thew 
Wheat. 


Thew 
Wheat. 


Algerian 
Oats. 


Date of Sowing 


21 June. 


14 August. 


4 June. 


27 June. 


21 May. 


16 April. 



Fertiliser per acre. 








Yields per acre. 






• 2 cwt. P7 

2 cwt. superphosphate . . 

* 1 J cwt. M5 

•2 cwt PB 

1 cwt. superphosphate . . 
No manure . 


t. c. 
13 15 
13 5 
13 1 
13 1 
10 12 
7 17 


q. lb. 
8 

2 
1 20 
10 

3 12 
18 


t. c. q. lb 
12 1 
12 12 3 12 

11 2 ' 16 
10 14 2 
10 1 8 


t c. q. lb. 
6 17 11 
C 11 1 20 
6 18 2 8 
P 17 1 
6 5 3 24 
5 15 2 24 


t. c. q. lb. 
6 14 2 
6 10 1 

5 14 

6 2 3 JO 

3 15 "o 


t. c. q. lb. 

6 11 2 10 
8 1 12 

7 3 
7 8 2 22 
6 10 1 IS 
6 1 20 


t. c. q. lb. 
10 8 
10 5 3 
9 17 2 10 
10 11 1 

8 01 12 


Greatest increase due to 

fertiliser 


5 18 


2 10 


2 11 12 


1 2 3 12 


2 19 2 2 2 20 j 2 10 3 16 



*P7 consists of equal parts superphosphate and bonedust ; M5 of superphosphate two parts and sulphate 
of ammonia one part ; and P8 of equal parts superphosphate and blood aujl bone. 



1 beliete that co-operative organisation is the best, and perhaps the only 
way of teaching the small farmer business method and the power of com- 
bined effort, and that until this lesson is learned, lectures on increased pro- 
duction are largely waste of time and money. — Lionel Smith-Gordon in 
Better Business. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 181 



The Culture of Sugar Cane in 
New South Wales* 

[Continued from page 32. j 



A. H. HAYWOOD. Manager. Wollongbar Experiment Farm. 

The Question of Varieties. 

As remarked at the beginning of this series of articles, the Government 
Statistician's figures indicate that — notwithstanding the lament over good 
sugar-canes dropped by growers in years gone by — there has lately been a 
distinct improvement in the average sugar content of the cane grown on 
our rivers. In a large measure, no doubt, 'hat improvement has been 
unconscious so far as growers are concerned, the varieties introduced to take 
the place of those that hav- had to b- discarded being generally the result 
of cross-bre«*ding and selection carried on el-ewhere The facts, however, 
do indicate the excellent possibilities offered by systematic work in that 
direction. How important sugar-content ir. as a factor in profitable 
production hardly needs to be pointed out, but it is perhaps worth while 
remarking that whereas 8 per cent, of sucrose m-ans 110 lb. of sugar per 
ton of cane, 144 per cent, of sucrose means 175 lb. 

The importance of plant improvement, in relation to sugar-c*ne. is so fully 
recognised in Louisiana — where the producion of sugar is perhaps as large 
as anywhere in the world — that cross-breeding and improvement by selection 
goes on as a regular feature vear after year. Results encouraging as to both 
total yield and sugar-content have been obtained, and the work is now on 
an extensive scale. In one year, it is recorded, at least 1,805 varieties were 
under test — many of them being worthless, of course, but a few being 
promising. Cane growers in Louisiana are much interested in the work, and 
already varieties have been produced that are expected to put a very 
different aspect on the industry there. 

At the same time, there has been, and perhaps still is in Australia, a 
disposition to regard new varieties as so many talismans for the solution of 
all cane growers' troubles. The notion is obviously unsound. "What is 
wanted is the b--st variety for the conditions, quite apart from whether it is 
new or old, and at the same time the consistent selection of seed from 
vigorous and disease-free plants. That there is a good deal to be known on 
this subject of varieties is apparent from the statement lately made by a 
well-informed man that at the present time some fifty or sixty varieties are 
being grown on our rivers. Having regard to the fact that soil and 
climatic conditions under which sugar cane is yrown in New South Wales 
might roughly be divided into say half-a-dozen groups, in respect of each of 



182 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

which perhaps, one or two varieties could be named as most suitable, it 
would appear that less than a dozen varieties would be ample for all 
ordinary requirements. 

It is not so much new varieties that are needed as an ampler knowledge 
of the comparative usefulness of existing varieties, together with systematic 
testing of any others that seem likely to be useful here. 

Some indication of the possibilities of improvement of the varieties grown 
in this State, when subjected to systematic observation and selection, is 
afforded by a few stools that are growing at the Department's Duck Creek 
farm on the Richmond River. A year or two ago attention was directed 
to a root of sugar cane growing on certain land, which, neglected for some 
years, had become overrun with lantana. That a root should survive under 
such adverse conditions seemed to argue a vigour that might be desirable in 
a cultivated crop, and a few canes were saved. From them the stools at 
Duck Creek farm were raised. What the sugar-content may be has yet to 
be learned, of course, but 8 feet of cutting cane of great thickness and a 
good stooling habit suggest that the strain may prove a useful one. It may 
be that by some such accident a distinct advance may some day be made. 

•Systematic crossing, of course, can only be carried on where the cane will 
M arrow " or run to seed, but it may be that by introducing from other 
countries seedlings regarded as promising for our conditions, and acclimatis- 
ing and selecting them here, improved strains of much significance to the 
industry may be produced. The task is one that, far from being uninterest- 
ing or unattractive, opens up possibilities that might well engage a few 
progressive farmers. 

The following brief notes about the varieties best known on our northern 
rivers are intended to indicate as far as possible the utility of each. 

New Guinea No. 16. — This is the variety that is perhaps most extensively 
grown in New South Wales. It occupies nearly 80 per cent, of the area on 
the Clarence, is second in favour with growers on the Richmond, and is also 
sown on a fair area on the Tweed. 

It is a purple cane, fairly erect, and of leafy habit, throwing a lot of flag, 
which tends to keep down weeds ; not a high-testing cane, but a good 
cropper, standing dry weather well and responding at once to rain ; a slow 
grower the first year, and therefore properly a two-year cane ; " arrows" in 
certain years on the Tweed. In at least one case in the past season the 
yield was estimated at 70 tons per acre. New Guinea No. 16 cannot be 
recommended for rich land on account of its rank growth and poor quality, but 
it is specially adapted to light and medium soils, and to land that has been 
under cultivation for a number of years. 

Badila. --On the Clarence one-tenth of the area under cane is planted with 
this variety ; on the tweed it is largely grown on account of its preference 
for wet conditions, ami OB the Uichmond it also has many partisans, being 
specially adapted for new rich land and for well cultivated land of good 



M<ir. _'. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N .SAY . 183 



quality. Notwithstanding its somewhat delicate character and its liking for 
moisture, it crops well in a dry season, and at all times responds well to good 
cultivation methods. Being of a spreading and leafy habit, it is a good frost- 
re-ister. The sugar-content of the cane is high, and the yields at tim-- 
much as 40 and 50 tons per acre ; during the past season at least one crop of 
approximately 70 tons per acre was found. 

Sfohona. — This variety was at one time very popular, but latterly it has 
been attacked by fungus pests, and the area under it is now much smaller 
than in years gone by. It seems particularly liable to leaf scald, a disease 
that has lately made its appearance on the Richmond, and that in some 
nces has wiped out whole crops. There are plenty of healthy crops of 
Mahona yet. however, on the Richmond, and it is quite possible to save it if 
good methods are adopted and if diseased crops are avoided for seeding 
purposes. It occupies 40 to 50 per cent, of the cane-lands on that river, 
being highly adapted to the heavy land between the river and the sea. Apart 
from its liability to disease, its greatest faults are its soft skin (which makes 
it liable to the attacks of racs ., and a disposition for a percentage of the 
canes to lodge and to be snapped off when the ground is being cultivated. It 
is a quick grower and most likely of all to provide a crop at one year, and it 
i- useful as a good cow cane. 

Malabar. — This is an old time favorite that has long ago been given up on 
the Clarence, but that does particularly well on indifferently drained areas 
on the Richmond. It is a very erect, strong grower, with a strong broad 
leaf that affords plenty of protection to the cane, and it is generally 
vigorous in habit as to escape many of the troubles of other canes. At least 
one crop estimated to run &0 tons to the acre was last season to be seen on 
the Richmond. Gumming, so generally associated with want of drainage, 
does not seem to affect Malabar to the same extent as some other varieties, 
but in sugar-content it is rather weak, especially if not allowed to mature 
fullv. Its vigorous habit makes it somewhat of a favourite on the stony 
lands of the Cudgen area, but growers should take care that they plant only 
from sound stock. Drill planting is preferable with Malabar, and sets are 
generally dropped 2 feet apart in the row. 

Innis 131. — This variety is grown to a limited extent on the Clarence, 

while an occasional crop may be seen on the Richmond. It is a very erect 

glower and a poor stooler, and hence should be planted in drills. For sandy 

ground it is, perhaps, the best of all varieties at present grown in New South 

nd it has the recommendations that it weighs well at the mill and 

i in sugar, but for the most part there are more profitable » 

D 1135. — Atone time this variety was extensively grown, but it became 
■ptible to Fiji and other diseases, and only a few crops of it are now to 
be seen. It is fairly well suited to the poorer classes of soils, and under 
conditions favourable to i:, matures rapidly : but where it has been growing 
for a number of years the introduction of one of the newer canes might be 
said to be imperative. 



184 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

1900 Seedling. — This is a cane of high quality that yields some good crops 
on well-drained lands, but it is very susceptible to Fiji disease, and, conse- 
quently, the sets should be carefully selected. 

No. 14. — This is still regarded by farmers as one of the best canes ever 
grown on the rivers, but it became badly affected with Fiji and other dis- 
eases some years ago, and lias been dropped. It is only mentioned here as a 
variety that might be well worth attention in plant improvement work, a 
direction in which opportunities do present themselves to observant farmers. 

Louisiana 511. — Coming first into prominence in the country of its origin 
in 1908, Louisiana 511 has since maintained a reputation for high sugar- 
content. It is tall and etect in habit, and has been observed at Coimbatore 
sugar-cane breeding station in India to carry an extremely short top — an 
indication of early maturity. It is under trial at the Department's Duck 
Creek farm, and has been found to produce as much as 6 feet of cutting cane. 
In common with one or two other varieties which have been produced in 
Louisiana, this cane is regarded as beginning a new era in the production of 
sugar. It is one of the consricuous examples of the possibilities that 
systematic plant improvement offers, and is in itself an encouragement to 
someone to take up the matter in this country. 

D 75. — This is another new variety from Louisiana ; it carries a very large 
green cane, and it is reputed to be profitable for its sugar-content. It is also 
under trial at Duck Creek farm, where its behaviour is being watched with 
interest. 

{To be continued). 



Gallipoli Wheat under Local Conditions. 

Through the courtesy of the Victorian Department of Agriculture, a 
sample of Gallipoli Wheat — a variety from which good results have been 
obtained in the southern State — were recently received by the New South 
Wales Department from Werribee Research Farm for local trial. The seed 
was sown at this farm on 13th May, 1920, at the rate of 50 lb. seed with 
56 lb. superphosphate per acre. It proved to be a late-maturing variety, 
with short straw and brown, erect, club-shaped ear, holding its grain very 
firmly — it is, in fact, extremely tough to strip. From the several heads 
differing in type from those of the body of the crop, it was judged that the 
variety was not yet properly fixed ; these heads were removed prior to 
harvesting. The yield was 26 bushels per acre. The following yields were 
obtained from other varieties in the same trial grown under similar 
conditions : Major, 28 bushels ; Yandilla King, 27 bushels 37 lb. ; 
Federation, 27 bushels 21b. ; Hani Federation, 25 bushels 17 lb. ; 
Marshall's No. 3, 25 bushels ; Wagga 47, 24 bushels ; Currawa, 
23 bushels 54 lb. ; Canberra, 23 bushels 31 lb. : Wilfred, 22 bushels 19 lb. ; 
Zealand, 19 bushels 22 lb. ; Hamel, 19 bushels 10 lb. ; Bomen, 18 bushels. 

All varieties Buffered reduction in yield as the result of lodging and 
shedding, but Gallipoli suffered least in this respect, owing to its short, 
strong straw, and to the firmness with which it holds its grain. — 
H. C. Stenino. Manager, Temora Experiment Farm. 




Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W., March * 1921. 



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New Guinea No. 16 Sugar Can*. 
One node, natural size, on the left. 



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Uural Gazette of X.S.W., March 2, 1921. 




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Mahona Sugar Cane 

One node was photographed natural size, but It wm so large that the whole could not 

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Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., March 2, 1921. 




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Malabar Sugar Case. 

One node was photographed natural size, but was so large that the whole could not 

be reproduced on the page. 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W., March 2, 1921 



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D 1185 Sugar Cane, 
one node, natural size, on the left. 



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Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 185 



The R*A.S* Field Wheat Competition* 

[n 1920 the Royal Agricultural Society, for the third time, promoted a Field Wheat 

Competition, and, with the approval of the Minister for Agriculture, Mr. W. K. Birks, 

Agric). Insw ctor of Agriculture, acted as judge. The following extracts from the 

report furnished to the President and Council of the .Society by Mr. Birks will be found 

of interest to all wheat-growers. ) 

The district covered by the present competition embraces that part of the 
main wheat belt bounded on the south approximately by the line Blayney- 
Condobolin. and on the north by the line Coolah-Coonamble. All the im- 
portant wheat-growing centres of this area were represented in the original 
entries, which numbered fifty-four. Of these twenty-four were voluntarily 
withdrawn prior to the judging tour, leaving thirty fields, which were ulti- 
mately inspected during the latter half of November. 

Tn so bountiful a season as the present, heavy crops are to be expected as 
the general rule. Most of the fields inspected, however, made an exception- 
ally fine showing, and none can be said to be anything less than a very good 
crop. 

Under the prescribed system of judging, consideration is paid not only to 
yielding capacity, but, possibly to an even greater extent, to the relative 
suitability of the crop for seed purposes. In framing the award, strict 
account has been taken of this aspect of the competition. 

The Season. 

Taking the district as a whole, the main feature of the season may be 
described thus : An exceptionally dry fallowing period (July 191 ■ , to March, 
1920), followed by a practically rainless autumn. Thus, in the majority of 
cases, the seed was sown in dry ground, worked up in most unfavourable 
circumstances, and, at the end of May, the prospect for this year's crop, 
both as to yield and cleanliness, was by no means bright. The break of the 
drought in the early days of June was, of course, general, and the monthly 
rainfall for the winter and early spring may be given roughly, on the average, 
as follows : — June, 6 inches ; July, 5 inches : August, 2 inches ; September, 
3 inches. October was comparatively dry, less than an inch being recorded 
in most localities, but the growing season was rounded off by two most oppor- 
tune falls in November — approximately f of an inch in the first week, and 
^ an inch about the middle of the month. 

Under these circumstances, thorough fallowing and careful preparation of 
the seed-bed cannot be expected to show the marked results obtained in 
normal seasons, and little relative importance can be attached to the cultiva- 
tion methods employed in individual cases. However, it is of interest to note 
that of the farms visited those on which modern methods have been followed 
for a period of years on a definite system show prospects of an ample reward 
in the form of freedom from weeds and disease. 



186 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



District Distinctions. 
The normal relative district yields are also varied in a season such as this. 
The easterly portions of the area, usually more favoured, have, if anything, 
suffered from a certain amount of rankness of growth and a prevalence of 
weeds and rubbish, while towards the western limits of the wheat-growing 
country (that is. westward of the line Trundle-Peak Hill-Narromine), the 
crops, for the most part, seem cleaner ; they stand up well on comparatively 
short straw, and show prospect of uniformly heavy yields. 

Soils. 

Further, different types of soils show exceptional results. Of the heaviest 
half-dozen crops inspected two were grown on semi-alluvial riverside country, 
one on red basaltic soil, and one on country tending towards the black-soil 
plain type. That is to say, the soils which are, normally, to be expected to 
give flaggy growth liable to burn off in spring, this year carry very fine crops 
of grain. For the rest, almost every type of good wheat-growing soil to be 
found in the west was represented, varying from sandy loam to hard red clay, 
and embracing typical box and pine country, with an odd sprinkling of 
buddah, belah. and ironbark. 

Varieties. 

The only generalisation which can be made from the results is that, on the 
whole, Federation still takes pride of place on the western slopes, while on 
the broader, earlier areas of the plains. Hard Federation is favourite, and 
promises the heaviest yields. 

A striking feature of the entries is the enterprise they display on the part 
of the competitors in the introduction and trial of new varieties. In addition 
to the standard New South Wales sorts, many of the principal Victorian, 
South Australian and Western Australian varieties were met with. Of 
greater interest still are the cases of wheats evolved within the district. Thus 
Redwing is a wheat selected by Mr. D. A. Rich, of Wellington, while some- 
thing of a climax is reached in the case of Plowman's No. 3, a wheat 
produced by the exhibitor on his own farm. 

Apart from the competition, it is to be noted that attention is not,contined 
to Australian varieties. .Several case^ of foreign importations were seen, 
notably a small plot of an Egyptian wheat raised from a sample forwarded 
by the grower's son while 071 active service. Further, in individual cases, the 
practices of actual cross-breeding, hand-selection, and hand-picking of fairly 
large areas were all seen in operation. 

The district is fortunate in having a number of prominent growers who are 
very much alive to the possibilities of careful selection for the maintenance 
of the high standard of established varieties, together with the evolution of 
new types especially adapted to local conditions. And it is to be remarked 
that these gentlemen briny very considerable plant-breeding skill and 
efficiency to their task. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of X. SAY. 187 

Seed and Manure. 

Little can be said as to the rates of seeding. They are normal in their 
active districts, except where slightly affected by the almost universal 
financial stringency of the period. 

The apparent unpopularity of artificial fertiliser is a striking feature of the 
entries. The restriction of the use of superphosphate is also due in part to 
eonsiderations of economy. On the other hand, the district includes a wide 
area in which superphosphate is of doubtful or negative value in wheat- 
growing; Thus, in the country lying west and north of Dubbo {e.g.. 
Narromine and Gilgandra). the normal practice is to sow without manure. 

However, in other localities, such as Parkes, Wellington, and especially 
the higher countiy between Mudgee and Coonabarabrau, the more liberal use 
of superphosphate would probably have shown a handsome profit. 

Trueness to Type and Purity. 
Tiie presence of "strangers'' was the eau-e of loss of points in many cases. 
The fault arises not only from mixed seed, but also, and especial'y in a season 
such as this, from sowing on stubble ground which last year carried a 
a different variety of wheat. In preventing the actual mixing of seed, too. 
greater care than is u>ually exercised is necessary in the thorough cleaning 
of both harvesting and drilling machinery. The raising of seed from 
periodically hand-selected samples is also essential to maintain the standard 
and purity of a type. Several striking illustrations of this point were 
observed. Thus such popular varieties as Purple Straw and Gluyas, for 
which no source of selected seed exists locally, are generally found to be very 
badlv mixed, whereas the crops raised from seed distributed by the Govern- 
ment farms are often remarkably pure. Again, the history of the improve- 
ment of Hard Federation is recalled in the slight variations of type met 
with in the entries of this variety. The original distribution of this wheat 
prior to 1915 was of seed raised by Mr. Pridham from his early selections. 
The variety then showed both brown and whitish heads, and this mixed type 
-ill to be met with. Since then, Mr. Pridharu has succeeded in isolating 
and fixing the pure brown strain, which he selected as the genuine type. 
This rich brown colour i- easily distinguishable from the lighter hue of crops 
of the original type, and where it occurred in the competition, the entry 
naturally scored better for u trueness to type " than those showing the 
characters of the older and now obsolete variation. 

Disease. 
All the commoner local diseases of wheat were met with in a greater or 
~r degree of prevalence. Rust had everywhere established itself in the 
more susceptible varieties, but, thanks to the dry spell in October, little 
damage is to be anticipated. 

Flag smut was seen in several of the competing crops, but only on odd. 
tered plants. In neighbouring paddock-, however, several examples of 
>us outbreaks of thi> disease were noticed, and in some cases as much as 
30 to 50 per cent, loss was indicated. 



188 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Twenty-five per cent, of the entries were affected by take-all, and in two 
at least the loss caused was serious, being in the region of 15 to 20 per cent. 
In every case the land had suffered from continuous cropping to wheat for 
a number of years at some time in its history. And from land where such 
mismanagement had allowed the disease to establish itself, it appeared that 
neither one year's fallow, nor even a year's grazing followed by a winter 
fallow, was sufficient to eradicate the evil. The evidence gathered on this 
point bears out the established idea that the only sure combative method 
consists of periodic fallowing, and the avoidance of more than two crops at 
most in succession, of which the second should be oats. 

Bunt or ball-smut was by far the most serious disease met with, and it is 
responsible for more or less heavy deductions under the heading "freedom 
from disease " in thirteen cases. It is difficult to explain the occurrence of 
this disease in every case. No doubt the necessity of dry sowing induced 
some growers to forego pickling, and the absence of summer and autumn 
rains would leave last year's bunt spores intact, to germinate along with the 
seed when rain ultimately fell. But in some cases, pickled seed sown on 
fallow still gave a bunt-ir.fested crop. Nevertheless, on those farms on 
which the land is periodically cleaned by grazing and fallowing, and where 
nothing but clean, well-pickled seed has been sown for many years, the crops 
were singularly free from this and other diseases. 

Weeds. 

Careless farming, either recently or in years gone by, is reflected in an 
abundance of black oats in the wheat this year. Three competitors suffered 
heavily on this score, and the presence of oats was, no doubt, the deciding 
factor in many of the withdrawals. 

That this pest can be definitely controlled is demonstrated by the presence 
of perfectly clean crops on old cultivation ground in badly infected areas. 
Some of the factors contributing to success in this direction have already 
been referred to in the foregoing paragraph. In addition, a light dressing of 
superphosphate is claimed by some competitors to give their wheat an 
advantage over the ubiquitous oat. Not the least important precaution, 
however, is shallow seeding. Many of the black oat and other weed seeds 
lie upon or just beneath the surface of the ground, whereas the drill, espec- 
ially in soft, dry ground, may put the wheat down to a depth of three inches 
or more if special precautions be not taken. The rubbish thus gains an 
advantage of anything up to a week or ten day's growth over the wheat, and 
that at a very critical period in the struggle for possession of the field. 

Condition and Appearance. 

Under this heading account is taken of such faults as lodging and 
tangling, flagginpss, frosted or burnt tip, &c. However, none of the entries 
showed any of these defects to an appreciable extent. Several crops badly 
lodged were among those withdrawn. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



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190 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2. 1921. 



Apparent Yield. 

In a season so unusually unfavc urable, even the oldest and most ex- 
perienced growers hesitate to put a definite estimate upon their crops. It 
may eventually prove that discrepancies exist between the apparent yields 
as estimated and the actual harvest results, but whatever unavoidable error 
may have crept in here will be common to all cases, and the relative yields 
of competing crops are probably very closely represented by the scale of 
points allotted. 

Conclusion. 

The general impression left by the tour involved in judging the com- 
petition is one of greatly enhanced confidence in the possibilities and 
prospects of wheat-growing in the western district. 

It is a significant fact that many of the best crops seen were raised from 
seed grown on the farms, the product of the crops varying from 6 to 
12 bushels per acre, grown in the record drought of 1919. Some growers 
go so far as to claim that, given proper methods of cultivation, there has not 
yet been a drought severe enough to cau-e a total crop failure. Taking the 
district as a whole, it may, at least, confidently be asserted that when the 
the general standard of farming has reached the high level exemplified in the 
methods of some of the leading entrants in the present competition, our 
inevitable periodic droughts need not be expected to cause more than a 
fraction of the loss entailed in the disastrous experiences of recent years ; and 
the industry will then stand upon a correspondingly sounder basis. 

The thirteen crops to which trophies and certificates of commendation were 
awarded. are given on page 189. 



Influence of Milk Records on Prices of Cattle. 

In recent years, milk recording in Scotland has had a remarkable effect on 
the prices of good milk record cows and their progeny at both public and 
private sales. Auction sales of young bulls and other milk record stock, an 
the instance of well-known breeders, have now become common, either at the 
farms of the owners or at special sales at market centres, when the milk 
records or the milking pedigrees of the animals are stated in the catalogue of 
sale. Something still depends on the appearance of the animal, but if in 
addition to good appearance there is a good milk record for the animal, or for 
the dam and grand dams, the prices now obtained are almost fabulous com- 
pared with pre-record days 

In view of the great influence of official milk records on the commercial 
value of dairy animals in recent years, the general body of breeders in Scot- 
land have concluded that the time has come when such n cord should be 
taken into account in the judging of dairy cattle at cattle shows. As a result 
of a mass meeting of breeders of dairy cattle and others interested, held in 
Ayr in the beginning of 1919, a new standard of judging Ayrshire cattle 1mm 
been agreed to, whereby from 1921 a maximum of 35 points out of a total 
maximum of 100 points are to be reserved for allocation according to a 
definite scale for authenticated milk yields .... This is an event of 
pre-eminent importance, not only in the history of the Ayrshire breed, but in 
the history of milk recording in Scotland.— William Stkvknson in the 
Scottish Journal of Agriculture. 



Mar. 2, 1&2J..] Agricultural Gazette o/NJS.W. 191 



Popular Descriptions of Grasses. 

[Continued ?rom Vol. XXXI. page 792.] 



K. BREAKWELL, B.A., B.Sc., Agrobiologist. 

The Spear, or Corkscrew, and the Wire Grasses. 

The Spear, or Corkscrew, grasses (Stipa sp.) are so called on account of the 
characteristic shape of the seed, which is like a corkscrew or miniature 
spear. -enabling it to bore into the flesh of animals, and sometimes to cause 
considerable injury. These grasses are often confused in the field with the 
Wire grasses {Aristida sp.) : in the case of the latter, however, the bristle or 
awn of the seed is divided into three branches, while the Stipa seed has 
a single awn. 

Spear or Corkscrew Grasses. — The Stipa grasses are common throughout 
the warmer portions of the globe ; in this State they are as cosmopolitan as 
the Danthonia grasses, being found in all localities from the coast to the 
western borders. Generally speaking, they are confined to the southern 
temperate regions of Australia, being very rare or absent in Queensland and 
the Northern Territory. Danthonia and Stipa g >w well together, 

and this association forms the greatest part of the good sheep native 
pastures on the tablelands and slopes of the interior. 

As the name implies, the S|>ear or Corkscrew grasses are readilv 
distinguished by the shape of the seed. This is long, cylindrical, and very 
sharp-pointed in character, and often has a tuft of hair situated on the 
point Attached to the seed is an awn or bristle, sometimes of considerable 
length, and spirally twisted like a corkscrew. This awn is considerably 
affected by variations- in moisture. For example, if we assume that Stipa 
seeds are lying on the surface of the soil, and that the awns have become 
moist through dew or rain, then, when the air becomes dry and the moisture 
evaporates from the awn, a twisting action is set up in the latter, and the 
seed penetrates into the soil. It is this twisting action which also enables 
the seed to bore, in some ea>es. through the entire layer of skins of animals. 

The commonest and most important Stipa grasses occurring in our native 
pastures are S. setaeea and S. scabra. Miles of country in the western slopes 
and interior are covered with these, and they are often associated with 
Danthoi.ia species. The principal features which render them valuable are 
as follow : — 

1. The seed germinates very quickly after thunderstorms. Experiments 
carried out on the germination of these seeds in the seed-testing laboratory 
of the Botanic Gardens show that the sprout begins to show forty -eight hour- 
after the seed is moistened, whereas with most grasses this does not take 
place for from five to seven days. 



192 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 




Fig. 1. — Stipa setaoea. 

A common Corkscrew or Spear grans found in association with Danthonia sp. Note the casing round 
the old roots, and the narrow wiry leavee— drought-resistant characteristics. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 193 




Fig. 2. — Stipa icabra. 
Another common Corkscrew or Spear grass found on the Western Slopes and Plains. 



194 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



2. They are amongst the first grasses to appear in late winter or early 
spring. This is the period when grass feed is particularly valuable, and the 
young growth of the varieties mentioned is palatable, and evidently nutritious 
for stock. 

3. They are particularly adapted, owing to their drought-resistant qualities, 
to the dry summers of the Kiverina, and are consequently abundant in this 
area. 

The Stipa grasses in the northern districts of the State are much less 
abundant, and are generally much taller than those in the southern portions. 
One of the most important is S. aristiy) '.iimiu, which has tall stems and wide 
but harsh leaves. 

Management of Spear Grass Countr y.— Spear grasses should not be allowed 
to dominate the whole of the pastures. As the Danthonias grow well with 
Stipas, and are more palatable, it is possible to thicken up with Danthonias 
when necessary. That this can be done by scattering the seed in early 
spring amongst the Stipas, as has been proved by a pastoralist who is some 
distance inland. 

If possible, sheep should be removed from the Spear grass pastures during 
the flowering period ; otherwise the spear-like seeds will affect considerable 
damage to the eyes, mouths, and other parts of the animals. If a heavy 
seeding crop results, and the season turns out to be calm and dry, thus 
preventing the seed from falling to the ground, fires can be used. The 
writer, however, does not recommend the employment of fires unless under 
provocation, as they remove a great deal of mulch and organic matter 
from the earth, and destroy a considerable amount of seed, and render the 
new growth less capable of withstanding dry conditions. 

Wire Grasses.- -The most useful Aristwla grasses are A. Behriana and 
A. leptopoda, both very common on good soils in the Riverina. In their 
voung stages they are very much appreciated by stock, but on reaching 
maturity their wide leaves become particularly harsh, and they are generally 
left alone. 

Drought Resistance. — The Spear or Corkscrew and Wire Grasses are 
amongst the most drought-resistant of our native plants, and it is this fact, 
rather than their palatability, which renders them particularly valuable. 
Even in the coastal districts and the steep barren slopes of the Great 
Dividing Range, the Stipas will be found growing in the poorest and driest 
of soils, where little other vegetation is noticeable. The entire structure of 
these grasses is conducive to drought resistance. It will be noticed, for 
example- in Stipa semibarbaia, that the root fibres are encased in a woolly 
investiture for protection, a most unusual feature in plants. This woolly 
casing is different from that previously described in the case of our western 
Love grasses. In the latter, root hairs were present on the old portion of 
the root, but the sand or earth casing had no hairs or wool intermingled with 
it, as in the case of the Stipas. The manner in which this dense, woolly 
blanket could protect the root from the scorching action of the hot surface 
soil can easily be imagined. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural GazeUe of N.S.W. 



195 




Kg. 3. — Stipa urmibarbata. 
A very hair} - Corkscrew or Spear grass, found in the i 



196 Agricultural Gazette of N.S. W. [Mar . 2, 1921 . 

The leaves again are generally narrow and harsh in character, and in hot 
weather become completely rolled up, thus presenting as small a surface as 
possible for transpiration. "When the leaves are wide, as in the case of Stipa 
Tuckeri, they are covered with a dense felt of hairs, which evidently also acts 
as a deterrent to excessive transpiration. 

Where drought-resistant characteristics are extremely well developed, these 
grasses are practically useless for fodder purposes, except under extremely 
adverse conditions. This is particularly the case with the West Australian 
species (S. eriopus and S. trichophylla), which inhabit barren, desert soils. 
It is also the case with many of our own Aristida or Wire grasses, particularly 
A. vagans, A. ramosa, and A. calycina. The presence of these species 
generally indicates poor, barren soils. 



Annual Stud Pig Sale at Hawkesbury 
Agricultural College. 

The Annual Stud Pig Sale at Hawkesbury Agricultural College will be held 
on Wednesday, 16th March, at 12-30 p.m., when fifty specially selected 
pedigreed pigs (including Berkshires, Taraworths, Yorkshires, and Poland 
Chinas) will be offered at auction. 

A train is timed to leave Central Station, Sydney, for Richmond, at 
8 - 56 a.m., and vehicles will meet the train and convey buyers to the sale. 
Luncheon will be provided at the College, and buyers can return to the city 
by train leaving Richmond at 4 p.m. the same day. 

Arrangements can be made for crating and despatching the animals, and 
the vendors will feed and attend to same pending despatch for only a 
nominal fee. 

Catalogues and further particulars can be obtained from Messrs. Badgery 
Bros, (auctioneers) and the Principal of the College. 



Ladybird Beetles and Potatoes. 

Some interest was taken in the latter part of 1920 in damage that was being 
done by certain ladybirds to growing potato crops in the Hunter Riv« r 
district, and the question was raised whether it was not in reality pumpkin 
beetles that were responsible for growers' losses. 

As a matter of fact, a common spotted ladybird often does considerable 
damage to the foliage of potatoes and tomatoes, though, of course, most of 
the ladybird beetles are very useful in destroying aphis, scab, <fec. ' There is 
one group of the true ladybird beetles in the genus Epilachna (common in 
Australia) that are plant-eating in both grub and beetle stages, and the 
spotted leaf-eating ladybird beetle (Epilachna 28-punctafa) is a large, dull, 
orange-yellow beetle, covered with black spots, not unlike Leis conformis, 
which is one of the most useful aphis-eating ladybird beetles. This species 
often feeds upon potatoes, doing a great deal of damage when numerous. 

The pumpkin beetle, though a pest on melons, cucumbers, &c, never 
touches potatoes. — W. W. Froggatt, Government Entomologist. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 197 



"Yema" Budding of the Vine. 



H. L. MANUEL, Vitkultural Expert. 

In establishing a resistant vineyard on commercial lines to-day, three methods 
are adopted : — 

1. Planting with bench-grafted rootlings. 

2. Planting with ungntfts, and, in the spring-time, tield-grafting with 

the cleft or whip-and-tongue. 
" 3. Grafting ungrafts with the summer bud, known as ••Yema " grafting. 

Mr. F. De Castello, Government Yiticulturist of Victoria, on a torn*, 
through Spain, observed the method of propagating with the Yema graft, and 
■on his return to Australia put it into practice in Victoria, where it has 
proved a valuable addition in aiding the reconstitution of phylloxera 
affected areas , 

Mr. Roimce, the Superintendent of the Mirrool Nm-sery, Griffith, modified 
the cutting somewhat, and in both his modifications ha* simplified the opera- 
tion. The Yema trait has many advantages over both the bench and the 
ordinary held (spring) graft. Being ma<ie in the form of a bud, a minimum 
injury to the stock results, and a better union between the stock and scion. 
Ti e stock being already established, is better able to produce a good, strong 
sh ot for the formation of the stem. 

The operation of grafting is done in January and February, and even to 
t e end of March, according to the condition of the vine — a time when the 
sap is flowing so as to produce an excellent callus, that is, when the tempera- 
ture is warm and the period of greatest vigour in the vine has passed. The 
bud remains dormant until the spring, when it shoots out under normal 
•conditions into very strong growth, having the advantage of a full growing 
• in in front of it. An occasional bud may be found that remains dormant 
until the following year, and there are known cases (which are exceptional) 
of an odd bud remaining for two years before bursting. 

With the ordinary tield-grafting, which is dene during the spring months 
when the sap is flowing very freely, and at a time when it is known to 
■drown somewhat, the callousing takes longer and not with the same results 
as are obtained with the autumn working. The vine being weakened for 
the time being, and the growing period shortened, the vine is less able to 
produce a strong healthy shoot, and in some cases several short weak shoots 
result. 

Vines that are planted in the spring and that grow well throughout the 
-t-ason, can be successfully Yema-worked in the following February or 



198 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S. W. 



[Mar. 2. 1921 



March. In the case of weaker vines it is advisable to leave the operation 
until the following year. The stock should be growing well with a fair flow 
of sap before an attempt is made to Yema-graft it. 

Scion-wood should be well matured and in size should equal, as closely as 
possible, the diameter of the stock. Supplies of scion-wood should be 
gathered from clay to day so as to insure them being fresh, and they should 
be wrapped in a wet bag until required. For convenience when working in 
the field, from time to time cut the scion-wood into one-bud lengths, and 
carry them in a small bucket of water. A suitable bucket can be mafic 
from a kerosene tin by cutting it on the full length, so as to give a shallow 
depth. 



V\ 



tf 




A} A> B 

12 3 4 5 6 

Various Systems of Yema Budding. 
1 to 5. Mr. J. C. R ounce's modification. 
6. The original dovetailed method introduced by Mr. F. De Casfcello. 

The operation of the Yema graft is as follows: — Remove a few spits of 
earth to form a basin around the stem. (as shown in A 1 on the next page). 
About an inch above the level of the surface soil remove a piece of wood from 
the stock (as shown at As above), and into this insert a bud cut from the 
scion-wood as shown in B. It is advisable to tie the bud, although some 
skilled hands at the work omit to do so. A half thickness of bag thread will 
do to make the tie, or even a piece of raffia will suffice. 

After the bud is tied, fill in carefully, covering the bud well over as in Bl . 
The bud simply callouses and remains dormant until the spring. During 
the winter months the vine can l>e rut back to one spur of a couple of buds 
(as shown at C in the second illustration), all the other American wood being 
removed as at D, 

At a period shortly before fcbe bud is likely to burst, say in August, tie 
mound should be removed, leaving the bud exposed, and when the bud 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N. SAY. 



199 



finally bursts out tlie spur can be cut off a couple of inches above the young 
shoot (as shown at E in the third illustration). Closer cutting than this 
will injure the knitting of the union, '['he projecting piece can be cut hack 
the following year, if all is well with the union. 





Yema Bud, inserted in Autumn. 

The bud can be seen on the line of the surface : 
soil mounted up ; wood to l>e removed as marked. 



99H 






The Bud in Spring. 

Note the -growth of the bud and the cuttin-j 
back of the stock. 



Periodically throughout the spring and summer attention must be paid to 
the disbudding of the resistant shoots that may grow, and the young 
European shoot tied to a stake to prevent the wind from injuring it. The 
knife most suitable for the operation is a narrow-bladed one, having a razor 
edge. A good pocket knife with a steel blade that is worn somewhat is 
ideal, if it is well sharpened. 



Oats and Barley as Poultry Foods. 

Are oats (either crushed or whole) economical feed for fowls ? 

It has to be remembered that the bushel of oats is only 10 lb., whereas the 
bushel of wheat is 60 lb. Oats are a good feed for fowls up to a certain 
point, that is, it is not advisable to feed on oats alone. A third to one-half 
of the evening feed may be of oats if a plump variety, such as Tasmanian 
white oats, is in use. The same applies to barley.— ^Iames Hadlixgton, 
Poultry Expert. 



200 Agricultural Gazette ofN.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



The Influence of Atmospheric Variations 
on the Weight of Bagged Wheat** 



F. B. GUIHRIE, G. W. NORRIS, and J. O. WARD. 

In connection with the work of a sub-committee appointed by the Advisory 
Council of Science and Industry to inquire into the question of weevih in 
wheat, it was thought desirable to ascertain to what extent the moisture- 
content of bagged wheat varied with the changing moisture content of the 
air. 

Through the kindness of Mr. G. W. Walker, of Messrs. Lindley, Walker 
and Co., a bag of freshly-harvested wheat was therefore obtained direct from , 
the field during the harvest of 1917-18, and its weight was taken daily for a 
period of nearly two years. It is assumed that increases and decreases in 
weight represent gain or loss of moisture. 

The accompanying graphs show how the variations in the weight of the 
wheat correspond with the variations in atmospheric humidity. The lowest 
of the graphs shows the daily variations in the weight of the bag of wheat 
weighed daily at 9.30 a.m. (Sundays and holidays excepted; from 21st 
January, 1918, to 8th December, 1919. The weight of the bag is given in 
pounds and ounces, and the pound is subdivided into eight parts, each line 
representing, therefore, two ounces. 

The weight of the bag (or rather of another similar bag) was also taken 
daily for a period, but as the weight of the bag was only 2 or 3 lb. and 
varied so slightly as not to affect the total weighing, this was discontinued, 
and the figures given represent the total weight of wheat and bag, the 
variations due to the loss or gain of moisture by the bag itself being 
negligible. For the sake of clearness the dates are only recorded at intervals 
of one week— every second line representing one day. The first day of each 
month is distinguished by a thick line. 

The bag was suspended from the roof of the laboratory, and to be weighed 
was lowered on to a small weighbridge by means of a pulley. The ropes and 
the beams and rafters were protected from rats by means of metal shields. 

The changes in the humidity of the air are presented in the two upper 
graphs, and are taken from the daily observations made by the Weather 
Bureau. The distance of the Observatory from the chemist's laboratory is 
not more than 400 yards in a direct line, and it may be assumed that the 
atmospheric conditions are identical, except that the wheat was weighed 
under cover, and the surrounding air was not likely to be subject to the same 
rapid changes as is the case with the open air. 

[• Read before the Agricultural section, Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Melbourne, January, 1921.] 



c/' 



*v 



t» 



Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of A" .£.11 . 201 

The upper graph represents the number of grains of moisture per cubic- 
foot held by the atmosphere. Each daily value was obtained by extracting 
the mean of three observations taken at 9 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m., and thus 
convey* a correct idea of the nature of the atmosphere affecting the wheat on 
that day. Each horizontal line in this graph represents half a grain. 

The figures upon which the centre curve (relative humidity) was based 
were obtained by the same method, and this graph depicts the variations in 
the relative humidity or the amount of moisture suspended in the air, shown 
as a percentage of the amount it would be capable of holding if saturated at 
that temperature. In this graph each line represents 5 p^r cent, relative 
humidity. 

The original weight of the bag as received, 21st January, 1918, as will be 
seen from the graph, was 1951b. 6oz. 

The bag immediately commenced to gain in weight, until about 3rd Feb- 
ruary, without responding to any slight changes in local atmospheric con- 
ditions. 

From this point the graphs maybe compared, and it will be noted that on 
the whole the three graphs compare fairly well with each other, any appreci- 
able lowering of the moisture content being followed in a day or two by a 
corresponding decrease in the weight of the bag. Similarly a rise in mois- 
ture content precedes an almost immediate increase in weight. 

The increases ami decreases in the weight of wheat are, however, much 
smaller than the increases and decreases in humidity. Generally speaking, 
there is a gradual increase in the weight of the bagged wheat from early in 
February, 1918, when it had accustomed itself to its new atmospheric con- 
ditions, until about 14th or loth May, 1918, when the maximum weight re- 
corded is reached, namely, 1981b. lOoz. 

The weight remains about or above 1981b. until 11th or 12th of October, 
after which date it drops quite rapidly to 1961b. lOoz. by 1st November, and 
remains in the neighbourhood of 1971b., seldom reaching 1981b., during the 
summer months, and until the end of February, 1919. 

During the summer months^January and February — the weight never 
exceeds a couple of ounces over 1971b. 

There is then a sudden increase in weight from the end of February, to 
about 4th March, 1919, followed by a drop at about 22nd March, both of 
which changes were preceded by a corresponding rise and fall in the humid- 
ity graph. 

From this date the weight increases steadily during the autumn months to 
over 1981b. in the middle of June, after which it never rises above 1971b. 
during the dry months experienced. 

On 2nd December, 1919, it had risen to 1971b. 8ozs., shorl ly after which 
the experiment was discontinued. 

It is interesting to note that the highest recorded weight was 198 lb. 10 oz., 
which was reached on two occasions — 5th August, 1918, and 21st May, 
1919 — and that the lowest weight (after it had adjusted itself to its new 
environment) was 196 lb. on 14th October, 1919. 



202 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. \ Mar. 2, 1921 



This represents a range from the original weight of 195 lb. 6 oz. to 
198 lb. 10 oz. On the assumption that the grain was harvested in a hot 
and dry atmosphere, and was at its driest and lightest when received, the 
effect of storing it in the comparatively moist atmosphere of Sydney results 
in a maximum variation of 3 lb. 4 oz. in a bag of wheat weighing 195 lb. 6 o/.. ; 
or 1*4 per cent. 

The period during which the experiment was carried on proved an excellent 
one for the purpose, as it contained many sharp variations in the atmospheric 
moisture content, alternating with groups of days of avez-age humidity. 

It is noteworthy that the weight of the wheat followed fairly closely 
nearly all these rapid changes in the state of the atmosphere. 

It would appear that at first the gradual and persistent rise in the weight 
of the wheat indicates the inclination of the grain to ateorb moisture, and 
an apparent reluctance to part with it until it has absorbed the maximum, 
after which a reverse state of affairs prevails, and in spite of more humid 
conditions the grain does not increase in weight, but readily responds to dry 
conditions and parts with its moisture. It will be seen that when the 
experiment was abandoned, the final weight of the wheat was very nearly 
what it was when it had accustomed itself to its new surroundings — about a 
fortnight after it had been received. 

Conclusions. 

The conclusions may be summarised thus : — 

1. Wheat harvested under hot and dry conditions rapidly increases in 

weight when brought into a cooler and moister atmosphere. 

2. Subsequent variations in weight are slight and varj r generally with 

the atmospheric humidity, a rise or fall in the humidity being 
followed almost immediately by a corresponding rise or fall in 
weight. 

3. The variations in weight of bagged wheat harvested under hot and 

dry conditions and stored in a cooler and more humid atmosphere 
do not exceed 1£ per cent, over a period of two years. 

4. After the wheat has been stored for two or three weeks and has 

adjusted itself to the new conditions, the variations in weight are 
much less. 



Spread of Another Bad Weed. 

The Californian Stinkweed, Gilia tiquarrosa Hook, et Am. (Polemoniaceae), 
is figured in Ewart and Tovey's " Weeds of Victoria." It is exceedingly 
common in Victoria, and has for a number of years teen recorded from the 
Tumbarumba district, as mentioned by me in the Gazette for April, 1901. I 
had hoped that it would confine itself to the cold regions of Tumbarumba, and 
I have not heard of it as spreading in any other district until quite recently, 
when [ received it from the Yass district. 

It is a rather prickly plant, about 2 feet high, the numerous small bluish 
flowers in the head being surrounded by rigid bracts. It has not a pleasant 
smell, hence its common name. — J. H. Maiden. 






Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 203 



Some causes of Co-operative Failures* 



C. C. CRANK, Organising Inspector of the Agricultural Bureau. 

Likk all things worth the doing, the maintenance of a healthy co-operative 
association is beset by certain difficulties and problems. Associations 
enthusiastically launched have been known to founder, and many other* 
have shipped heavy seas before ultimately reaching smooth water. 
Enthusiasm is an excellent thing — so long as its decisions defer to certain 
elemental law<. 

Lack of Efficient Management. 
A successful manager requires to have had an expert business training 
in all the lines with which he is operating; he must be as well or better 
trained than the men who are operating in competition or opposition, and 
he must have administrative ability, integrity, and tact. Too often a co- 
operative society appoints a local man (possibly one of its members) as 
manager because he is popular and possesses some general qualifications 
rather than because he has any particular and specialised ability which fits 
him for the post. Too often an expert manager is unwisely restricted by 
members of the board, who have general but not expert knowledge, and 
who forget that while it is their duty to adopt a policy, it is essentially the 
manager's business to administer it, and that to do this efficiently he must 
be allowed considerable latitude and independence of action. Finally, it 
must be remembered that as the position of manager calls for a specialist's 
qualifications, it calls also for a specialist's remuneration. 

Lack of Loyalty of Members. 

The foundation-stone of any co-operative society is the individual member, 
and in a co-operation of producers his loyalty is of special and paramount 
importance. Loyalty means personal interest, enthusiasm, confidence, and 
complete support. 

To ensure loyalty the initial cost of becoming a member should not be 
too small for the sum invested to be looked upon as a stake in the society 
the loss of which would be of importance to the member. Each member 
should feel that he has something to lose, something to gain, and that his 
interest is not merely sentimental but principally monetary g - must 
be taken by the secretary or committee where necessary to keep members 
well informed, and to explain positions that, if left in doubt, would cause 
uneasiness, or possible defection. Producers" co-operations have frequently 
found it advisable to insist that members deal exclusively with the co- 
operative business, and to insure against defection by instituting a scale 
of fees that must be paid as liquidated damages in respect of all business 
passed through outside agents or transacted privately by members. 



204 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Opposition. 

The question of opposition is closely allied to that of loyalty; for, while 
loyalty is maintained opposition must be ineffective. Rival companies and 
private competitors are likely to put up opposition in proportion to the 
menace that the co-operative association seems to promise to their interests, 
and steps calculated to cripple it may be expected at the earliest opportunity. 
Prices will be cut and inducements offered to members that will possibly 
appear extremely attractive. 

The individual must be made to realise that concessions and benefits 
made at such a time by competitors are temporary, and due to the existence 
of the co-operative association. The association should be in a position to 
work more economically than any other concern legitimately could, and the 
committee should take steps to convince members that their prices represent 
the minimum when selling and the maximum when buying, and that finer 
prices represent a loss or at least a serious risk. The committee should see 
that members are kept informed as to (1) the benefit they have received 
from the association; (2) the prospects the association opens up for them; 
and (3) the possible results of the association's failure. 

Isolation. 

As the individual is the unit of the association, so must the asso- 
ciation be but a unit in a co-operative federation; that is, the local 
association should retain its individuality, but should by affiliation with 
others secure for itself as a society what it has as a union secured for the 
individual. In short, while local individualism is a necessary feature of the 
co-operative movement, a co-operative union or federation and a co-operative 
wholesale are equally essential. No society should endeavour to exist as an 
isolated co-operative undertaking. 

Operating on too Small a Margin 

Generally speaking, a co-operative association should not set out with the 
immediate object of cutting prices; it should pay current rates when buying, 
and charge current prices when selling, for such will give a sufficient 
margin to tide the concern over times of distress. If at the conclusion 
of the financial period it is found that customers have been paid too little 
for their produce, or have paid too much for the goods they have purchased, 
this must be refunded to them pro rata of the business each individual 
member has effected with the association. 

Unsuitable Scale of Operations. 

Organisation should not be considered satisfactory till there is a sufficient 
volume of business in sight to reduce to a satisfactory minimum the over- 
head charges which are a necessary cost on buying and selling. The 
larger the bulked trading transactions effected through the society the 
greater will be the reduction in cost to the individual. 

A society must learn to walk before it can run, and its magnitude must 
depend on its capitalisation; under-capitalisation means buying on terms 
and increases cost in every direction. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 205 

Purchase on the Credit System. 
The main aim in co-operation is to effect economy. Credit dealing is 

expensive and uneconomical, and, however inconvenient it may be for mem- 
bers to pay cash, the importance of the cash purchasing principle in co- 
operative work is sufficient to warrant that inconvenience being imposed 
upon members. Generally speaking, if a co-operative society gives credit 
to its members it must ask for credit from its wholesale suppliers. 



Thick or Thin Seeding for Wheat? 

A farmer in the Central Western District asked for data as to the relative 
values of thick and thin seeding. In reply, the results of the experiments 
carried out by the Department were summarised as follows : — 

1. Thick seeding has given the best results in good seasons, and the later 
the sowing the thicker should be the seeding. 

2. Thick seeding has also given the best results with sparse stooling 
varieties, such as Florence. 

3. What constitutes thick seeding in one district may be medium or thin 
seeding in another. For instance, medium seeding at Glen Innes is 1 bushel 
per acre, and when sowing is done late in the season (say in July) up to lh 
bushels are sown, but at Trangie and Xyngan the best results over a period 
of years have been obtained with from 35 lb. to 40 lb. of seed per acre, while 
further west still the sowing is still lighter. 

4. Size of grain, stooling habit of the variety, time of sowing, moisture 
content of seed-bed, and average climatic conditions are all factors which have 
to be considered. Climatic conditions are variable, of course, and for this 
reason all departmental tests, when averaged over a period of ten years, give 
the best results from medium seeding. 

As the farmer cannot tell in advance what the climatic conditions of the 
season will be, the safest plan is to employ a medium seeding, subject, of 
course, to reservations as regards time of sowing, etc. — R. G. Downing, 
Senior Experimentalist. 



Some Results from the Department s Grass Seed. 

Mr. J. W. Barratt, Public School, Bulga, has supplied the following notes 
on grasses and clovers grown by him from seed supplied by the Department : — 

Bokhara Clover. — Sown Julv, 1919; cut several times last year, last cut 
December, 19*20; present height 3 feet. 

Phalaris bulbosa. — Sown 10th July, 1920 ; 2 feet high in December, 1920 ; 
part cut 30th December. 

Giant Fescue {Fest»ca arundinacea). — Sown 10th June, 1919 ; cut October 
and December, 1920; grew very slowly for first twelve months, but has 
stood the dry weather well ; present height 3 feet 6 inches. 

Warrego Summer Grass (Panicum jiividum). — Sown 10th June, 1919; 
cut March, August, and December, 1920 : good dry weather grass ; present 
height 3 feet. 

Chilian Clover. — Sown 10th July, 1920 ; flowered December. 

Coolah Grass. — Present height 4 feet. 



206 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2. 1921. 



Plants which Produce Inflammation 
or Irritation of the Skin.* 



J. H. MAIDEN, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S., Government Botanist and Director, 
Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

A lady student in the Agricultural School at the University drew my atten- 
tion to what is known as " brigalow itch " in the Moree district. Brigalow 
is a wattle, with the botanical name of Acacia harpophylla, and it i* 
illustrated and described in Part 34 of my " Forest Flora of New South 
Wales." 

The Chief Inspector of Stock informed me that the Inspector of Stock at 
Moree advised him as follows : — 

I do not know anything of the brigalow itch personally, but I have been informed by 
old hands that when ringing the brigalow, a fine powder, thought to come from the bark, 
of the tree, caused an itching and irritated the skin, which would break out in eruption. 
The powder is described as very fine and yellow in colour. • 

Reference to the Forestry Commission has brought a number of interesting 
reports, some of which, although they are not evidence in regard to brigalow r 
form an interesting supplement to our knowledge regarding the connection 
between plants and skin irritation : — 

Dubbo. — Nothing is known of brigalow itch, but many timber- workers, where there is 
no brigalow, are troubled with an itch. An insect (locally known as " giggles ") in the 
Bogan River, causes an itch. 

Forbe8. — Nothing is known of brigalow itch, but a hairy grub which attacks myall 
trees (Acacia pendula) leaves behind a large bag which when disturbed exudes a fine 
dust, which on coming into contact with the body causes an intense irritation. 

Deniliquin. — Brigalow does not grow in this district, but an itch is known to have 
been caused by the brown dust blown from the cocoons of the bag moth on myall (Acacia 
pendula) and yarran- (Acacia homalophyUa) trees. An itch very common in the red-gum 
(Eucalyptus rostrata) forests is caused by the decayed cocoon (of a moth) which is often 
Under the loose bark on the gum trees. When this dust comes into contact with a man's 
body it causes a most tormenting itch which is almost unbearable, but it only appears to 
take effect when the body is heated. 

Narrabri. — An itch commonly called brigalow itch has been prevalent in this district 
for some time past, but people have been known to suffer from it who had never even 
seen a brigalow. In brigalow country, especially in wet weather, the itch is bad, and 
would appear to have been caused by the tree. It does not last long, and one is rid of it 
next day. Dr. Park, of Narrabri, informed the District Forester that he has had a number 
of cases of various forms of "dermatitis", but solely from men who had been cutting 
pine (Callitris) whilst the trees were laden with pollen, or who had been cutting Noogoora 
burr (Xanthium strumarium) [see this Gazette for 1899, p. 1043J. Dr. Park was of the 
opinion that these men were affected by the burr aud the pine, as the symptoms recurred 
when they went back to work. He also noticed that only persons inclined- towards 
eczema and persona with very tender skins were so affected, and that he had known 
many men employed in ringbarking and working among brigalow at all seasons and in 
all weathers who never felt any ill effects. The District Forester states that after rain 
there is always a most unpleasant odour hanging around the brigalow scrub which can 
be best described by likening it to the scent left bv a fox. 

* Previous references : — June, 1920 : May, 1918 : March, 1416. 



Mar. % 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



207 



Analyses of Saltbush* 



F. B. GUTHRIE. 

Some time ago the secretary of the Advisory Council of Science and Industry 
was making inquiries concerning the commercial utilisation of AtripUx 
nummutaria (old-man saltbush) for the production of potash, and asked for 
any information available on this point. As we had no records of deter 
mination of potash in the ash of saltbush, samples were obtained from the 
Manager of Nyngan Experiment Farm, who kindly supplied fresh plants 
of three varieties common in the district, the local names for which were 
given as creeping saltbush, red-berried saltbush, and old-man saltbush. 

These were identified by Mr. J. H. Maiden, I. SO., F.R.S., Director, 
Botanic Gardens. Sydney, as Alriplex sp., (Jhenopodium triauyulare R.B.. 
and Atrip/ex nummularia respectively. The creeping saltbush may be 
Atriphx leptocarpum. F.v.M. They were reduced carefully to ash, and the 
following tables give the composition — firstly of the crude ash, and secondly, 
for the sake of more accurate comparison, of the pure ash, exclusive of 
carbonic acid, sand, and charcoal : — 



Analyses of 


Ash 


of Saltbush. 










Cree piiii.' 
Saltbush. 


Red-berried 
Saltbush 


Old-man 
Saltbush. 


Carbonic acid (CO. 


1036 


1522 


7 69 


Sand 




5 56 


686 


244 


Charcoal 




0-60 


168 


1 40 


Silica (Si0 2 ) 




4S3 


4; 25 


216 


Iron and alumina (Fej0 3 and Al ; Oj) 




093 


27S 


3-85 


Lime (CaO) ... ... ... 




7-36 


15 14 


529 


Magnesia (MgO) 




3 94 


3- 10 


194 


Potash (K 2 0) 




34 l, 6 


29 96 


1388 


Soda(Na,Oi 




8 38 


."> 00 


32 15 


Chlorine (CI) 




•23 ST 


1264 


30-25 


Sulphuric acid (S0 3 ) 




2-80 


2 94 


446 


Phosphoric acid (P 4 5 ) ... 




19S 


1 96 


1 49 




10657 


102-08 


107 00 


Deduct Oxygen equivalent of Chlorine... 




5 38 


2 So 


680 


Total 


10019 


99-23 


100 20 



208 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



Composition of Pure Ash, exclusive of carbonic acid, sand, and charcoal. 



Iron and Alumina (Fe 2 3 and Al 2 O a ) 

Lime(CaO) .. 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Potash (K 2 0) 

Soda (Na 2 0) 

Silica (Si0 2 )... 

Chlorine (CI) 

Sulphuric Acid (S0 3 ) 

Phosphoric Acid (P 2 O s ) 

Deduct Oxygen equivalent of Chlorine ... 



Creeping 
Saltbush. 



Red- berried 
Saltbush. 



Old-man 
Saltbueh. 



I'll 

8-82 

4 72 

41-88 

10-04 

5-78 

28-59 

3-35 

2 37 



10666 
644 



1U0-22 



3 64 

19-85 

516 

3929 

7-28 

5-56 

1660 

3-86 

2-57 



103-81 
3 74 



100-07 



4-35 

5 98 

2-20 

15-69 

36 34 

2-44 

3419 

5 04 

1-68 



107-91 
7 71 



100-20 



It would appear from these figures that, regarded as a possible source 
of potash, the creeping saltbush is the most satisfactory of the three 
varieties, whilst old-man saltbush contains less than one-half the potash 
present in the other varieties, its place being taken by soda in the form 
principally of sodium chloride. 

Value of Saltbush as a Fodder. 

It may be of interest to republish here some analyses made by me many 
years ago to determine the fodder-value of several varieties of saltbush from 
Bourke and Hay in New South Wales. The figures are calculated to dry 
substance, as the moisture-content varied considerably on arrival at the 
laboratory, some, especially of the smaller-leaved varieties, having become 
very dry. It may be stated that when quite fresh the leaves of saltbush 
contain about 75 per cent, water. 

The specimens were identified by Mr. J. H. Maiden. The names and 
localities are as follows : — 

A. Atriplex nummularia, from Bourke. 

B. Rhagodia parabolica. 

C. Atriplex halimoides (mixed with a species of Atriplex), from Bourke. 

D. Rhagodia Billiardieri, (probably) from Hay. 

E. Atriplex angulata, from Hay. 

F. Unidentified, from Hay. 



Analyses of Saltbush from Bourke and Hay, calculated to dry substance. 




A. 


B. 


C 


D. 


E. P. 


Oil 


1-54 


206 


2- 10 


1-88 


32/ 


1-83 


Digestible fibre 


26-73 


2217 


2306 


18-91 


1020 


26-99 


Woodv fibre . . 


908 


1863 


1345 


1101 


21-87 


1227 


Soluble albumenoids. . 


406 


356 


2-92 


5-46 


304 


3S6 


Insoluble albumenpids 


819 


693 


356 


853 


2 01 


597 


Soluble ash 


3268 


24-68 


2678 


3064 


89-16 


2875 


Insoluble ash 


471 


6-81 


3-83 


390 


19 49 


484 


Chlorophyll, amides and other extrac- 














tives (by difference) 


12-96 


16 11 


2430 


10-67 


1007 


1549 




100- 1 100- 


100- 


100- 


100- 


100 


Total Nitrogen 


276 '60 


2-48 


306 


1-84 


1 !)f> 


Amide Nitrogen 


•80 -92 


1-44 


1-42 


•89 


•58 


Percentage of common salt in ash 


566 1 44-7 


59-5 


44-3 


49-9 


59-7 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S. W. 



20i) 



The amount of water in the different samples examined was, as has been 
said, extremely irregular, some of the samples having become very dry in 
transit, The actual percentages of water in the specimens as received were 
as follows : — 

A 6673 D 6:v41 

B 4188 E 38-64 

C 4048 F 50 88 

The figures in the above table giving the percentage of common salt in the 
ash were calculated on thp assumption that all the chlorine present was in 
combination with sodium as sodium chloride. The analyses of the ash 
previouslv quoted show that quite a considerable proportion exists as 
potassium chloride. 

In order to compare the fodder-value of saltbush with that of other 
common green fodders, the following table has been compiled, in which the 
analytical figures are presented in the form in which they are usually set 
forth in fodder analyses and re-calculated to a moisture-content of 75 per 
cent. For the sake of brevity, the three samples from Bourke (A, B, C,) 
and the three from Hay (D, E, F,) have been averaged separately. 

Comparison of Saltbush with Other Green Fodders. 





Average of 
three samples 
from Bourke. 


Average of 

three samples 

from Hay. 


Maize. 


Sorghum. 


Lucerne. 


Timothy 
Grass. 


Water 


7500 


75-lXi 


79-3 


79 4 


71-8 


61 6 


Oil 


•47 


•61 


"5 


'5 


10 


1-2 


Albumenoids 


2-37 


2-5-2 


1-8 


1-3 


4-8 


31 


Carbohvdrates 


10-55 


7-78 


12-2 


11-6 


12-3 


20-2 


Woodv fibre 


8-62 


3 98 


5 


6 1 


74 


11-8 


Ash 


8-09 


1011 


1-2 


11 


27 


21 




100- 


100- 


100- 


100. 


100- 


100- 


Percentage of common 
salt in ash 


53-06 


51-03 











A comparison of the above shows that the saltbushcs take a high place 
among green fodders, the amounts of carbohydrates and albumenoids 
lying high, and the woody fibre relatively low. The high content of mineral 
matter, especially of common salt, is of course characteristic. , In discussing 
their merits as fodder, it must not be forgotten that they possess natural 
advantages over the ordinary cultivated crops or pasture grasses. They 
flouri-h on land which will not support other nourishing plants ; they resist 
drought to an exceptional degree ; are indigenous, and require no cultivation : 
are relished by stock, and are exceedingly prolific and easily propagated. 

It would appear, however, in spite of the universal recognition of these 
facts by stockowners, that there is some danger of these plants becoming 
mndant than formerly, through overstocking and other causes. 

In California they have imported a number of species from Australia for 
the purpose of cultivating it on the alkaline soils of that State. If it is 



210 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. | [Mar. 2. 1921. 



worth while to import saltbiish for cultivation in California, it is surely- 
worth while to encourage these plants in our drought-.-. tricken districts, if 
only to the extent of preventing them from being kept eaten down by- 
overstocking. 

It should be possible, if it were seriously attempted, to assist then- 
propagation materially, as they grow readily and prolific-ally from seed, from 
cuttings, and from the root. In good seasons there seems to be no reason 
why saltbush should not be ciopped like lucerne and conserved as dry fodder 
for times of drought. 



Points in Transportation of Bees. 

The essential points to consider when transporting- colonies of bees are: — 
(a) The provision of ample ventilation; (b) the fastening- together securely 
of all hive parts, including wedging of frames firmly together: and (c) the 
removal from the hive of all combs heavy with honey. The temperature 
must of course be taken into consideration when provision for ventilation is 
being made; so also must the population of the colony and the distance to be 
travelled. 

The procedure in preparing for transport a hive that contains a fairly 
populous colony during warm weather should be as follows : — 

1. Remove for separate transportation any combs heavy with honey: these 
can. be replaced with empty combs. 

2. Make all self-spacing frames firm by crowding together and inserting 
wedges between the outside frame and the wall of the hive. 

3. Place an empty super on the hive. 

4. Fasten the bodies of the hive together (and, if possible, the bottom 
board) with sound strips of board — one vertical strip at the rear and one on 
each side of the corner near the entrance, making sure that the bottom 
board is secure. 

5. Fit a full-sized wire cloth screen on top of the empty super and fasten 
on with cleats, setting double cleats at each end. so that the cover can be 
placed on without interfering with ventilation. 

6. When the bees have finished work for the day, press a strip of wire 
cloth into the hive entrance and then securely fasten with thin cleats. 

Aft night or during cool weather colonies can often be removed short 
distances with less preparation as far as ventilation is concerned: for in- 
stance, an empty super may not be necessary. It should be understood, how- 
ever, especially by beginners, that too much ventilation is far better than 
not enough: also, that it pays well to make all hive parts tirm and see that 
there are no cracks in the bottom board through which the bees might 
escape. — W. A. Gooivuuk. Senior Apiary Inspector. 



Okly roses that flower freely and continuously are suitable for the cut-flower 
trade. If a train journey of any length has to he taken into consideration 
,J.J.L. Mock and Radiance are to be recommended as good pink varieties, 
Hadley as a good all-round red rose, and Warrior as a good winter flowering 
sort.— E. N. Ward, Superintendent, Sydney Botanic Gardens. 



Mar. -2. 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



-Ml 



Pure SeecL 

Growers Recommended by the Department. 



The Department of Agriculture now publishes monthly in the Agricultural Gazette a 
list of growers of pure seed of good quality of wheat, oats, maize, sorghum. Sudan grass, 
potatoes, and other crops, in order to encourage those who have been devoting attention 
to this sphere of work, and to enable farmers to get into direct touch with reliable 
sources of supply of such seeds. 

This list is compiled after inspection of the seed and report by a held officer of the 
Department (preferably during the growth of the crop), and farmers who have pure 
high-elas* seed of good quality of any variety of farm crop are therefore invited to com- 
municate with the Under Secretary and Director, Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 

The Department does not undertake to buy any of the seed, but recommends the 
grower by pubbshing his name in this list. The following list indicates where pure 
seed, recommended by the Department, la at present obtainable : — 

Wheat :— 



Billy Hughes 
Home n 

Canberra... 



Clarendon 

College Purple 
Comeback 
Currawa .. 
Federation 
Firbank .. 



Florence . 



Genoa 
Gresley S3 
Hard Fedt 



Improved Steinwedel 



King's Red 
King's White 
Marshall's No. 
Marquis ... 
Major 

Pennv 



Red Wing 
R ymer . . . 

Thew 
Turvey . . . 
Warren ... 



Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobolin. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Temora. 
E. J. Allen, Gregra. 

Tayler, Lloyd and Co., Adavale, Parkes. 
S. M. Haig, Lisburn, Wombat. 
E. J. Allen, Gregra. 

R. J. 0. Berryman, Anicmoore, Bottield's Siding. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobo in. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
E. J. Allen, Gregra. 

Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobliu. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Nyngan. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobolin. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Glen Innes. 
Manager, Expe.-iment Farm, Traugie 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobolin. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Glen Innes. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
E. J. Allen, Gregra. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobolin. 
W. W. Watson, " Woodbiae," Tichborne. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobulin. 
Manage:. Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Kxp-riment Farm, Temora. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Glen Innes. 
W. W. Watson, " Woodbine," Tichborne. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
W. A. Graham, Rippingham Grange. Barellau. 
E. J. Allen, Gregra.^ 

W. W. Watson, " Woodbine," Tichborne. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobohn. 
W. A. Graham, Rippingham Grange, Barellan. 
E. J. Allen. Gregra. 

Manager, Experiment Farm, Glen Innes. 
W. W. Watson, " Woodbine, " Tichborne. 
Manager. Experiment Farm, Traogie. 



212 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

Pure Seed —continued. 
Wheat — continued . 
Warden ... ... ... ... W. \V. Watson, " Woodbine," Tichborne. 

Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 

Yandilla King W. L. Forsyth, Braeside, Wallendbeen. 

E. J. Allen, Gregra. 
S. M. Haig, Lisbuin, Wombat. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 
Zealand ... ... ... ... Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 

Oats :— 

Algerian ... ... ... Manager, Experiment Farm, Glen Innes. 

White Tartarian .. ... Manager, Experiment Farm, Glen Inhes. 

Grasses : — 

Paspalum ... .. .... Manager, Experiment Farm, Lismore. 

Elephant Grass (roots and cuttings) Principal, Hawkesbury A. College, Richmond. 

Manager, Experiment Farm, Grafton. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Lismore. 
Manager, Experiment Farm, Yanco. 
Kikuyu Grass (roots) ... ... Principal, Hawkesbury A. College, Richmond. 

CI oners : — 

Shearman's Clover (roots) ... J. H. Shearman, Fullerton Cove, Stockton. 
Bokhara Clover or Sweet Clover A. Sommerlad, Hillcrest, Tenterfield. 
Canary Seed : — ... ... ... Manager, Experiment Farm, Temora. 

Manager, Experiment Farm, Condobolin. 
It is especially desired at the present time to locate reliable sources of seed of Thew, 
Huguenot, Firbank, and Florence wheats, Sunrise, Ruakura, and Guyra oats, and Cape 
and Skinless barleys, the demand for seed of which for coastal green fodder far exceeds 
the visible supply. 

In addition to those tabulated a number of crops were inspected and passed for 
purity, but as the growers failed to forward samples their seed has not been listed. 



A Treatment for Tomato Wilt on trial. 

It having been claimed that successful results had been obtained from a 
certain treatment of tomato plants affected with wilt, tests of the treatment 
in question were recently carried out by me on behalf of the Department. 
Thirty-one plants were included in the experiment, twenty-eight being treated 
and three untreated. The soil was watered with a solution of ammonia 
(strong ammonia one tablespoonful, water 1^ gallons) five times a week, and 
the plants were sprayed with a .solution of saltpetre six days a week. The 
saltpetre solution was made up by dissolving a piece the size of a walnut in 
one gallon of water and using this as a stock solution, one tablespoonful of it 
being added to 1^ gallons of water for use. The treatment was carried out 
for two weeks. At the end of that period [ examined the plants and made 
the following report : — 

"There was no perceptible control of the disease in any of the plants 
treated as compared with the untreated plants. This method, even if 
successful, would not be applicable to field crops, as the time involved in the 
work and the cost of material would be too great. Even the most enthusiastic 
suburban gardener would hardly find time to pay such attention to his plants. 
The cost for ammonia for a fortnight's treatment for twenty eight plants was 
4s., 4 lb. being used at Is. per lb. 

" If, as recommended, the treatment were to be continued until the disease 
disappears, the cost, basing it on the experiment carried out, would greatly 
exceed the price at which tomatoes could be purchased in the shops. 

" I might again mention that there was no perceptible control of the 
disease in any of the plants treated, as compared with the untreated plants." 
— W. A. Birmingham, Assistant Biologist. 




Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 213 



Poultry Notes. 

March. 



JAMES HADLINGTON, Poultry Expert. 

Dlring the next four months it will be a profitable experience for the 
novice poultry-farmer to observe closely the incidence of prices of eggs and 
production. It is customary to hear poultry-farmers discuss winter egg- 
production as their objective, whereas it is autumn egg-production that is 
the more valuable. It is during March, April, and May that the highest 
average prices are obtained for eggs, and only in occasional years is the price 
of eggs in June equal to that of the preceding three months. Last year was 
one of these exceptions. The average monthly price for eggs during the 
three months specially under notice were : — March, 2s. 6 - 6d. : April, 2s. 9"9d.; 
May, 3s. Lid. The average for the three months was thus 2s. lOd. per 
dozen, while the average for the following three months (June, July, and 
August) was 2s. 6-2d. The latter figure was probably higher than would have 
been the case but for the festivities in connection with the visit of the Prince 
of Wales. At any rate it was materially higher relatively to the previous 
three months ; and taking into account higher prices right through the year, 
it was also relatively higher than the averages for the same months in 
previous years. 

The highest price, however, is invariably reached in May — thus demon- 
strating ihtt autumn egg-production should be the poultry-farmers' main 
objective ; but not alone for the autumn, of course, because if a good autumn 
laying is obtained it invariably follows that a good average winter laying is 
assured. Our aim thus becomes autumn and winter e«g-production, with 
the first as our special objective. 

How to reach it. 

A- was shown in last month's notes, high egs-production is not to be 
expected from hens during the moulting season. It follows, then, that it is 
to the pullets that we must look for the bulk of our production in autumn. 
Once this is realised we are in possession of the key to the situation, and it 
is upon our early-hatched pullets that we are absolutely dependent to pull us 
through this period of low average egg-production. 

In discussing this very vital problem, we have to realise that, while the 
early-hatched pullets will, if well tended, invariably come on to lay at 
between five and six months old, particularly so with light breeds, such as 
Leghorns, a noticeable feature with the later-hatched birds is their slower 
development, and consequently their later laying. Right now is the time for 
the poultry-farmer to observe these facts, and to mark carefully the perform- 
ances of the pullets hatched in the different months 



214 Agricultural Gazette o/N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



An Illustration. 

As bearing upon the subject, the writer has just completed an inspection 
o.f thirty farms, whose equipment and management is well above the average 
of poultry farms in this State. The progressive development of the young 
stock, as hatched month by month from June to September, was found to 
be well up to reasonable expectations ; the actual prospective layers for the 
next two months were June-July hatched birds, while the prospects covering 
the next four months were these, together with those hatched in August. 
The expectations for fully 50 per cent, were that they would not come on 
to lay until June or July. Thus it will 1x3 seen that while many of the 
early-hatched pullets are already laying, and the balance coming up to that 
point, the expectations for the later-hatched pullets are that they will be 
much older than six months before they make a start. This is where the 
lesson has to be learnt. 

It is, of course, understood that there are exceptions, and that many 
later pullets will have developed sufficiently to start laying during the 
months when eggs are dear ; but it is equally certain that the bulk of them 
will not do so. 

This is, perhaps, the best illustration obtainable of how much our success 
in poultry-farming is dependent upon early-hatched pullets, even after 
making every allowance for the very early pullets that may go into a partial 
moult in the winter. It may be remarked that pullets starting to lay in 
January are almost sure to do this, but let us not forget their performances 
during the autumn as constituting more than a set-off to the few weeks' 
rest whi^h they usually take when prices are beginning to decline. 

Preparation for Next Breeding Season. 

Having examined the incidence of last rearing season and its results, let 
us now turn to the preparation for next breeding season. Making up the 
breeding-pens, and all that pertains thereto, should now receive attention. 
March is not too early to make a plan of operations of all we intend to aim 
at in the coming rearing season. 

Breeding stock may have to be obtained, and by getting this together 
early an advantage is gained as far as pullets and cockerels are concerned, 
and a much better selection can be made than if it is deferred until 
all the forward stock has been picked over. Many farmers do this, 
and then find nothing but immature stock to select from. These are the 
experiences that cause a prejudice against breeding from pullets and 
cockerels. Naturally if immature stock is used for breeding purposes, 
weakness in the progeny will result, but the fact should not preclude the 
use of well-developed young stock as breeders. Not only so, but the farmer 
that relies solely upon second-year birds for breeders is almost certain to 
find himself with too few early-hatched and too many late-hatched chickens. 
As a guide to those who might be in doubt about using pullets and 



Mar. 2,{1921] Agricultural Gazette of N .SAY 215 

cockerels as breeders, it might be laid down that, taking light and heavy 
breeds separately, and other conditions being right, the following age* and 
weights should be suitable to breed from : — 

Light breeds. — Cockerels, 9 to 10 months of age, 5 lb. weight and 
over. Pullets, same age, 3| lb. weight and over. 
(b) Heavy breeds. — Cockerels, 10 months of age, 7 lb. weight and over. 

It follows, of course, that the exercise of judgment on the part of the 
farmer is necessary, and that it is difficult to lay down hard and fast rules 
in regard to these ages and weights. For instance, sometimes a fairly large 
and well developed bird, as far as frame is concerned, may from some cause 
lose some weight. This might happen when a birr! is taken from a flock 
and confined in a coop for a few days, or when it has been running with a 
large flock under harassing conditions : such birds might be considerably 
under the weight, while the frame and physique would indicate otherwise. 
The weights given are set down for birds of normal condition. 

Weights and ages are, of course, not the only consideration in selecting 
breeding stock. Type, colour, and any defects or desirable points will need 
to be taken into consideration. Obviously, these cannot he fully dealt 
with in these notes, and the breeder is referred to the standards for the 
particular breed he is keeping. These are given, together with illustrations, 
in " Poultry Farming in New South Wales," which is obtainable from the 
Government Printer, Sydney, price Is. 2d., by post, or from booksellers. 

The Moulting Season. 

The moulting season proper extends from January to May. Many of the 
birds will commence to moult a month or more earlier or later but March 
might he regarded as the middle of the moulting period, and the time when 
the maximum number' will be in the worst condition. 

Moulting is a natural process, and when birds are in normal, healthy 
condition this period should cause the poultry-farmer no concern beyond the 
fact that «inly a small number of the hens continue to lay while changing 
their coat of feathers. Nevertheless, a little extra care and attention to the 
birds at this, as at any other time, will well repay the farmer. Good, 
appetizing food, careful feeding in regard to amounts given, a plentiful 
(but not over) supply of green food of good quality, or in fact whatever 
makes for a healthy condition, will assist the birds to get through the moult 
with the least disturbance of their" general health. 

Fanciers and show breeders often resort to all sorts of methods and to 
the use of different nostrums in feeding with the idea of forcing birds 
through the moult, in order to bring them into show condition early, but it 
must be acknowledged they do so with very little success. Birds possessing 
stamina and good physique will come through the moult all right, and the 
idea that birds can be forced through the moult is more imaginative than 
real. 

However, moulting birds on many farms leave much to be desired, in that 
they have not, apart from the condition of feather, that appearance which is 



216 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 

the sign of good health. In such cases there is nothing better than a course 
of iron tonics, together with sufficient Epsom salts to act as an alternative 
when required. A course of Douglas mixture can be recommended in such 
cases. 

How to make Douglas Mixture. 

How to make and use this mixture is not as well understood as it should be. 
The formula has previously been published in these notes, but new readers 
and the above facts constitute a necessity for again reproducing it. The 
method of making and using it is as follows : — Take 4 oz. of sulphate of 
iron and 4 oz. Epsom salts ; dissolve in 1 gallon of boiling water ; let it 
cool, then add half an oz. of what is sold by the chemist as dilute sulphuric 
acid. 

This is " stock " or concentrated mixture, which must not be given to the 
birds in this form. Bottle the mixture in stone or glass {not metal) vessel, 
label it poison, and put it away. Two tablespoonsful of this mixture added 
to each gallon of drinking water on three to five days per week over a period 
of three or four weeks will be found one of the best poultry tonics known. 
It is cheap and easily made. The quantity advised is practically harmless to 
ordinary iron or galvanised drinking vessels, buckets, &c. 

Care is necessary in using sulphuric acid so as not to get it on the skin, 
which it will burn severely, and a glass stoppered bottle is necessary to 
contain it. 

Extermination of Red Mite. 

Experiments with various mixtures likely to control red mite have been 
proceeding concurrently as opportunity offered at Hawkesbury Agricultural 
College, and at Grantham Stud Poultry Farm, in the use of miscible red oils, 
such as are used for spraying fruit trees (but not miscible disinfectants) in 
place of kerosene emulsion for spraying purposes. These have been found 
effective with a 15 to 20 per cent, solution. They are not cheaper than 
kerosene emulsion, but they are simpler to mix, and to those who find making 
kerosene emulsion difficult (although it should not be so) these oils will be 
found effective. They are, however, found to injure painted surfaces, and 
are therefore only recommended as sprays on unpainted wood. 



To Destroy Mound Ants. 



Theke are two simple methods of dealing with mound ants. The first is to 
dissolve two ounces of cyanide of potassium in half gallon of water aud to 
pour a small quantity down the openings of the nests in the evening, when 
they are usually inhabited. The second method is to pour in bisulphide 
of carbon, employing about two tablespoonsful of this volatile and inflam- 
mable liquid for each main opening into the nest. If the openings are then 
tamped down with clay the fumes are sufficient to kill the ants, but the 
fumes may be fired and the underground chambers of the nest thereby 
shattered by throwing a wet bag over the opening of the nest after the 
bisulphide has been pouted in, then removing the bag after a couple of 
minuies (when the fumes are rising) and applying a light at the end of a 
stick. — W. W. Froggatt, Government Entomologist. 



Mar. 2. 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. ' 217 



Orchard Notes, 

March. 



W. J. ALLEN and S. A. HOGG. 

[a orchards in the drier districts of the State, it will be found an advantage 
to plough the land as soon as possible, providing, of course, that all the fruit 
has been, removed from the trees, and that there will be no unnecessary traffic 
in the orchard. It has been found advisable to leave the land in a rough 
state for the purpose of thoroughly derating the soil, checking the moisture, 
and retaining the winter rains. In orchards that are subject to washaways, 
provision should always be made by either permanent drains or temporary 
furrows. In the case of citrus orchards, provision should be made through- 
out the winter to carry off superfluous rain water. The lack of drainage in 
many of our citrus orchards seems to be the cause of the trees becoming 
weak and sickly, thereby encouraging the attacks of fungus growths and other 
diseases. 

Grading and Packing of Apples and Pears. 

There is a particularly heavy crop of apples and pears throughout our main 
tableland and highland districts. It is very necessary that growers should 
have their fruit packed in a uniform manner, and, for that purpose, the 
diagonal system of packing should be adopted. 

The chief points in grading apples are : Size, colour, freedom from disease, 
and uniformity through every case. 

The market generally demands a good, clean, medium sized fruit, 2\ inches 
being about the ideal, as the buyer generally wants what to the trade i> 
known as M a good count.'' Extra large fruit are not desirable, as these are 
generally coarse and do not keep so well. When grading, any fruit which 
shows the slightest sign of disease should certainly be thrown out. 

It is impossible to over-estimate the importance of grading apples for 
market. It is a tiling which cannot be overdone. Most fruit is practically 
unsaleable without grading, and the better the grading the better it sells. 

Every grower's pack should be as good as his bond : there should be no 
topping up, nor filling up corners with small apples. It will be found neces- 
sary in many cases to hand-grade apples after they have passed through the 
machines. No matter how perfect the machine may be, it can only dis 
criminate in size, and blemished apples will, of course, be graded accordingly. 
Since the advent of arsenate of lead as a preventive against the attacks of 
codlin moth, growers have to a great extent been able to check the depreda- 
tions of this pest. Although it has been found that it kills a very large per- 
centage of the larva\ the latter, in many instances, before dying have sufficient 
energy to enter the fruit, getting perhaps just under the skin, and thereby 
c 



218 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



leaving a blemish that is generally called a sting. Any apples so " stung " 
must be regarded as blemished, and care should be taken to avoid mixing 
them with sound fruit. 

Wrapping. 

Wrapping paper this season is very expensive, and it may, perhaps, be 
dispensed with for local markets, but should be used on fruit for export. 

Whether apples should be wrapped or not depends somewhat on the variety 
and the grade of fruit. 

Wrapping has several advantages : — 

1. It serves as a cushion in the case of delicate fruit. 

2. It prevents rot and fungoid diseases from spreading from one fruit to 

another. 

3. It maintains a more even temperature in the fruit. 

4. The fruit has a somewhat more finished appearance when exposed for 

sale. 

5. Wrappers keep the fruit firm and snug in the packages. 

The disadvantages of wrapping may be summarised thus : — (1) It adds to 
the cost of packing ; (2) it prevents rapid cooling in cases where the fruit 
is not cool at the time of packing. 

Harvesting. 

This work will now be engaging the time of growers of deciduous fruits 
and grapes. Raisin grapes and sultanas may be picked and dried. Late table 
grapes will be coming to market from the cooler districts. 

Prune drying will be in full swing — early ripening prunes, having been 
dried and put through their first process, will need very careful attention 
just at this time. As the early ripening fruit does not contain a large per- 
centage of sugar, it is apt to go mouldy, and it will, therefore, be necessary 
to examine it from time to time before giving the final dipping. 

All good keeping varieties of apples and pears may be forwarded to the 
cool stores for later markets, if prices are not satisfactory. Granny Smith 
apples and Winter Cole and Winter Nelis pears are suitable for this purpose. 

Fruit Fly and Codlin Moth. 

It seems almost incredible that any fruitgrower who is alive to his own 
interests would allow either fly or moth infested fruit to lie on the ground 
until the grubs have left them, but it does happen, and far too frequently. 
It is to these careless growers that we are usually indebted for the breeding 
and spreading of many of our pests, and it is they too who give so much 
extra trouble to inspectors under the Fruit Pests Act. 

Small flat tins or saucers suspended on the sunny side of the tree, and 
containing a small quantity of kerosene, serve as a splendid trap for the 
adult fruit flies on the wing. By adopting this practice, growers will place 
themselves in the position of minimising the source of infection. To secure 
the best results by this method, every citrus grower should set traps as 
suggested. The poisoned pollard bait has also given excellent results. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 219 

Budding. 

It is rather late, but, if the month should prove a warm one, it is quite 
possible that buds will still take if inserted in deciduous trees that are not 
producing either good fruits or satisfactory crops. Nursery stock may still be 
budded. The buds that are inserted so late in the season will remain dormant, 
and are known as " dormant buds." This explanation is necessary to the 
beginner in order that he may distinguish the difference between a dormant 
bud and one with one season's growth. It is sometimes preferable to plant 
trees with dormant buds rather than lose a season, providing one-year-old 
trees cannot be obtained from the nursery. 

Preparing Land for Planting. 

Clearing, grubbing, ploughing, and subsoiling preparatory to planting 
should now be carried out as soon as possible, and those who intend planting 
this coming winter and who have not completed these operations, should 
lose no time in finishing this work, so that new land will have a little time to 
sweeten before the young trees are set out, as well as to enable the orchardist 
to complete all planting operations early in the winter. 

Provided the ground is in well worked condition and contains ample 
moisture, vouns citrus trees may be planted this month in the coastal districts. 



Vineyard Notes for March. 

Wixe-makisg will !>e in full swing this month, and most of the grapes will 
have been picked before it ends. When once the crop has been gathered, it 
has become a custom with most growers to regard the vineyard work exs being 
at an end until the start of the pruning and ploughing. This should not be 
the case, as the keeping of the ground free from weeds, such as hogweed, 
summer grass, ftb., will not only facilitate future ploughing operations but 
will also conserve soil moisture. It will be noticed that badly cultivated 
vinevards lose their leaves early, which is detrimental to best results as 
regards wood maturity. To keep a vine in a healthy condition as far into 
the season as possible should be aimed at. It may be mentioned, too. that 
spraying for downy mildew should not be neglected if weather conditions are 
such as still favour its development. — H. L. Mantel. 



To Deal with Sparrows. 

The following mixture has been used with success by the' Departments of 
Agriculture here and in South Australia for poisoning sparrows ami similar 
pests : — 

Mix one tablespoonful of strychnine and one of washing soda with three 
parts of water and a little sugar. Boil until all ingredients are dissolved, 
then mix with 10 to 12 lb. of wheat. The grain so poisoned can be dis- 
tributed in small tins about the homestead or nailed to beams in sheds or high 
posts. Better results are obtained by using the poisoned grain intermittently 
and by baiting with good grain for a few days before poisoning : when the 
birds have been attracted to the spot lav the poisoned wheat. — W. W. 
Froggatt, Government Entomologist. 



220 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



Agricultural Bureau of New South Wales* 

SUGGESTED SUBJECTS FOR BUREAU MEETINGS. 

It sometimes happens that, owing to some inadvertence, members of branches 
meet without having any particular subject before them. In such a case 
one of the following paragraphs may provoke a useful discussion, and a brief 
report of the discussion will often interest other branches. 

What method do you adopt of preparing the seed-bed for wheat, oats or 
bat leg, (a) on fallowed land, (b) on stubble lan-l? 

Do you make any effort to ensure a supply oj succulent green feed for the 
ewes and lambs in the winter — a time when such feed has a special value in its 
maintenance of the milk flow ? 

Have you ever soion cover crops of winter feed on maize land after an early 
crop is off? What effect have you noticed these crops (be they wheat, oats, rye, 
field peas, rape, vetches, or anything else) to have on the subsequent crop ? 

What has been the most prevalent plant disease vrith which you have had to 
contend, this summer ? What steps did you take for its control and with ivhat 
results ? Could the outbreak have been reasonably anticipated and its effects 
minimised t 

What experience had you with Bordeaux mixture this season ? Has it 
damaged the foliage of fruit trees, and what strengths oj the mixture did you 
use ? 

Modern civilisation is said to be largely a matter of communication : What 
s'eps could be taken in your district to improve communication, (a) by improve- 
ment of the roads, (b) by co-operation to reduce freights ? 

THE FIRST DISTRICT CONFERENCE. 

The honour of holding the first District Conference in connection with the 
Agricultural Bureau belongs to the branches around Orange. It took place 
on 10th February, fourteen delegates attending from the following 
branches : — March, Messrs. F. J. and W. Griffith ; Springside, Messrs. T. C. 
Bowen, J. A. Thompson, and Scare ; Garra-PineclifF, Messrs. S. W. Packham 
and W. Forrester ; Coradgery, Messrs. W. E. Tayler and J. Clatworthy ; 
Borenore, Messrs. P. Henderson, W. Lewis, and T. Millgate. 

Mr. C. C. Crane, Organising Inspector, Mr. Tonking, Agricultural Master 
at Orange High School, and Mr. T. Hindmarsh, Lecturer on Agiiculture at 
the Teachers' College, also attended. 

Mr. W. E. Tayler was elected Chairman, and Mr. G. Henderson Secretary. 

The proceedings were marked by enthusiasm and a conviction of the utility 
of the movement, and by a desire to for ward the interests of the Bureau and 
the propaganda of the Department. 

A number of resolutions were passed, among which were the following : — 

Th.it it is desirable that the Agricultural Department provide Inspectors of Agricul- 
ture for every shire in the Central and Kastern Divisions to permanently reside in tin- 
most central town of each shire, so that farmers can avail themselves of his advice and 
guidance whenever needed, and that the title " inspector " be altered to " instrm toi ." 

That this Conference urges the necessity for starting a Bureau news publication, 
giving fall reports of the work of the various branches of the Bureau. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette o/N.S.W. 221 

That the Department be asked to arrange for more experimental plots to be carried 
out under the auspices of the various branches of the Bureau. 

That this conference expresses its sympathy with pastoraliets in exterminating wiiJ 
dogs, and urges the Government to give them all assistance possible. 

That a thorough investigation with reference to the feeding-off of Sudan grass be 
made to ascertain if it is injurious to stock at any period of its growth, and that 
circulars be sent out to all branches with the report. 

That this conference expresses its appreciation of the Department of Agriculture's 
work and help to farmers. 

REPORTS AND NOTICES FROM BRANCHES. 

NOTE. — While (jhuVy publishing in these columns (he vieics of members of 
the various Branches of the Agricultural Bureau, the Department does 
not nxe$sarily endorse the opinions expressed. 

Adamstown. 

A branch of the Buieau has been formed at Adamstown, in the Newcastle 
district, and at the inaugural meeting the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: — Chairman. Mr. G. Brock; Treasurer, Mr. B. Court : 
Hon. Secretary. Mr. F. T. Lewis : Assistant Secretary, Mr. R. Farley. 

There has been a distinct development near Adamstown in recent years in 
the production of fruit, vegetables, and flowers, and the new branch is 
regarded locally as having every prospect of a useful career. 

Auburn. 
At a meeting on 12th February, Mr. K. M. Finch read a paper opr 
chrysanthemum culture for show purposes. 

Too much stress could not be .laid on the preparation of the plants for cuttings, for the 
foundation should be well laid. Selection of site, propagation, planting, and so forth 
were all dealt with. The selection of the bud? was most important, and the habits of 
individual varieties would have to be studied in this regard, some doing best on what wa> 
known as first crown, and others on terminal buds. Timing the buds for show purposes- 
could only be learnt by experience, but if any bud, either second crown or terminal, was 
selected during February the flowers would be ready in April. Deformed buds were 
generally caused by unripe wood, the ground not having been firm enough in the first 
place. The qualities necessary for a perfect bloom for show were depth, size, solidity, 
breadth of petals, finish, freshness, and colour. 

A good show of flowers, vegetables, and fruit (comprising grapes, figs, and 
quinces) was staged, and much admired. The vegetable display is improving 
and increasing each month, and some good exhibits of fruit have come for- 
ward, although the schedule doe* not at present provide for fruit. 

Bimbaya. 

A meeting was held on 2uth January, when Mr. H. Wenholz, B.Sc., Inspector 
of Agriculture., delivered a lecture on maize culture. 

Mr. Wenholz covered the subject from the preparation of the soil to the harvesting of 
the crop. He advocated the burning of old maize stalks if smut, worms, &c, had given 
trouble in the previous crop, but ploughing under could be practised if those pests were 
not troublesome. Many farmers neglected to plough their ground early enough ; from 
4 to 8 inches of rain generally fell during the winter, and a large percentage of this 
could be stored in the soil by early and deep ploughing. Fallowing represented an 
increase from 7 to 10 bushels per acre. 

In reply to various questions, Mr. Wenholz said that whether maize stalks should be 
fed off after the crop would depend on local conditions. The farmer would have the 
advantage of the manure, but the moulds that grew on the stalks and the smutweie 
not good for stock. Peas or vetches would be a better crop to precede maize than wheat 
cr oats. The yield obtained locally should be double that obtained on the average. 



222 Agricultural Gazette, of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



Cordeaux-Goondarin. 

At the monthly meeting, on 27th January, the Chairman's resignation was 
received with expressions of regret, and Mr. J. Murphy was elected to fill 
the vacancy. 

A paper was read by Mr. G. H. Walker, the text of which is as follows: — 

A Method of Rkmuvtsg and Transplanting Old Trees. 

Having occasion lately to change my place of habitation, I was loth to leave behind 
me the fruit-trees which had been established there for upwards of seventeen years, some 
more, some less, but all in good profit and healthy. There was risk in moving them 
from good ground to new land on a hill-side, with the clay only 15 inches from the 
surface. General opinion declared it could not be successfully done, and many were the 
adverse comments made upon this "urban experimental plot" — for, being in the main 
street, in full view of every passer-by, it did not lack criticism. Now in its second 
fruiting season the results have fully justified their removal. 

The trees, five apples, two pears, two peaches, one apricot, and four Japanese plums, 
were lightly pruned in July, 1919, and immediately dug — in the following manner : — A 
circular trench, 4 feet from the base of the tree, was dug to 18 inches deep, and all 
extending roots cut through ; some of these were very large. Then a hole in the earth 
was made with a crowbar in a slanting direction, commencing 3 feet from the trunk of 
the tree and driven inwards and downwards until the centre of the tree was reached. 
A plug or stick of gelignite with fuse and detonating cap was finally rammed in and 
exploded, the action of this being to loosen and even blow away the earth from the 
fibrous roots ; at the same moment the tree was lifted some 4 or 5 inches upwards, 
and then settled back on its base with the eartii all cleared away. Every tree, with one 
exception, came out nnbruised and unbroken. 

The trees were then layered for six weeks, the ground not being ready or fences not 
•erected ; the holes were dug and gelignite used to break up the clay, but all that 
happened was that a circular chamber was made which was tilled with eartii and animal 
manure. 

The summer of 1919 was exceptionally dry, and the c ops did very little good, but 
the installation of a septic tank altered matters completely, the effluent watering the 
ground so well that on several trees new blossoms appeared in the autumn, and ripe pears 
(two Packhams) were picked "in August, of good flavour and sweetness. A Triumph 
peach broke into full spring bloom and carried its crop in a miserable way through the 
winter. It was strange to see a full crop of peaches on a leafless tree. This tree, now 
nearly dead, is the only failure of them all. The trees could not be healthier, and the 
crop this year will be a good medium one. 

The successful removal of these trees was due to the effort made to keep their roots 
intact, and was proved by the resulting crops both in 1919 and 1920. 

Dapto. 

At a meeting on the 13th January, Mr. R. N. Makin, Inspector of Agri- 
culture, lectured on ways and means of restoring impoverished soils. A 
summary follows : — 

Restoring Impoverished Soils. 

After land had been cropped for a number of years it often showed signs of exhaustion, 
as the supply of available plant-food would not last indefinitely. To remedy this 
impoverishment, drainage, deep ploughing and manuring might all be considered. Time 
methods of drainage were applicable to the district, viz., (1) pipe drainage, consisting of 
2-in.ch to 4-inch pipes placed about half an inch a] >a it ; this was a rather expensive method ; 
(2) timber, where timber was plentiful, placed IS inches to 24 inches under the surfacp, 
two pieces being so placed as to meet at the top and spread apart at the bottom, with 
brush and stones on top ; (.3) stones filled about (i inches deep in a trench 18 inches to 
24 inches deep, and covered with brush, and finally soil ; this made a very cheap and 
effective drain. 

In all these methods there was one main channel with several others running into it. 
When clay was close to the surface, underground drainage was impracticable, and 
surface drains not more than half a chain apart should be made to prevent washing. 

The subject of manuring was also dealt with, and suggestions made for 
local conditions. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette oj N.S.W. 223 



Dural. 

On 20th January Mr. W. le Gay Brereton, Assistant Fruit Expert, visited 
the district and delivered a lecture on the control and eradication of p. 
The questions that followed this lecture formed a very interesting feature of 
the evening, and resulted in useful information being given. Several 
members testified to the great help these lectures had been to them. 

On 28th January another meeting was held, when miscellaneous buuow 
was dealt with. 

Glenorie. 

This branch met on 29th January, when Mr. E. King was elected Chair- 
man, and Mr. H. Walker Vice-chairman. Formal business was transacted. 

Granville. 

A branch of the Bureau has been formed at this centre, and at a meeting 
on 15th December the following office-bearers were elected : — Chairman : 
Mr. G. Midgley ; Vice-chairmen : Messrs. J. B. Brown, H. Oliver, and C. E. 
Small; Hon. Secretary : Mr. B. Hyslop. The subscription was fixed at 2s. 6d. 
per annum, or 3s. 6d. for two members in one family. 

At the first committee meeting on 6th January arrangements were made 
for monthly competitions throughout the year, and also for special competi- 
tions on the same nights, classes being arranged for flowers, fruit, and 
vegetables. The first of these competitions was held on 15th January, when 
keen interest was taken in the exhibits. On the same occasion a paper was 
read by Mr. B. Hyslop on carnation growing. The autumn show of the 
branch is to bs held on 9th April. 

Inverell. 

At the January meeting of this branch, the proposal of the Department 
that a separate leaflet should be issued monthly, in which the reports of the 
branches of the Bureau should be published, was considered, together with 
the Department's request that branches should indicate whether they could 
supply a fair quantity of suitable news and other matter for the purpose. 

The proposal was heartily approved by the branch, and support was 
promised. 

Lower Portland. 

A meeting was held on 12th January, when a discussion took place on 
fungus troubles of fruit trees, and also on marketing problems. The orehard- 
ists of the district, it was said, were not having a profitable time owing to 
the very low prices realised for their stone fruit, and some were much dis- 
posed to replace the trees with citrus trees. The prevalence of fungus 
diseases was associated by all with the very wet weather early in December. 

With regard to marketing, members were of opinion that a different system 
was wanted. At present 2s. per half case and 2s. 6d. per bushel case were 
expended before the grower got anything. 

Mannus. 

At a meeting on 4th February, Mr. S. H. Todd was elected Hon. 
Secretary, vice Mr. Simple, resigned. A useful discussion ensued on St. 
Johns wort, and the general feeling of the meeting was dismay at the rapid 
spread of the weed, and the hope was expressed that the Government would 
take steps to aid in its destruction in the near future. 



224 Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



March. 

A meeting of this branch was held on 9th February, when a paper was 
read by Mr. R. Parker, on dry farming, from which the following paragraphs 
are taken : — 

Dry Farming.. 

The term " dry farming" seems to have come from America. The probability is that 
it was first employed, by those whose lands were above the level of irrigation. At the 
present time the general application is to fanning in districts with a comparatively 
scanty rainfall, without the aid of irrigation. One of the most successful of the 
Australian States in the practice of dry farming is South Australia, where in the Mallee 
country, with a rainfall of 12 to 16 inches, good crops have been produced. During the 
past ten to fifteen years, the wheat belt in our own State has been greatly extended, owing 
to our knowledge of dry farming methods. 

The general practices followed are : — (1) Fallowing the land ; (2) working the fallow ; 
(3) growing fodder crops. 

The essential feature of fallowing is ploughing, and this should be well done, as on 
this depends much of the success of the method. The time for ploughing will differ 
in different districts, but the general rule is to get it done before the hot dry weather 
sets in. The drier the district, the earlier the ploughing should be completed. Moreover, 
Ihe ploughed land is better for the work of soil bacteria, which have been proved 
necessary to plant growth. 

The fallow should be worked after each shower to keep the surface loose and prevent 
losses of moisture by evaporation and running off. 

Fodder crops can be grown in winter and fed off in early spring, and the land then 
ploughed for the fallow. It thus receives the benefit of the animal manure, as well as 
the residue and roots of the crop. 

To understand the reason for the foregoing operations, it is necessary to say something 
on soil moisture. Everybody knows that after rain, the surface always cakes, and in 
stiff soils it becomes so hard as to be almost unbreakable. Now in the' earth there are 
millions of small tubes, called capillary tubes, ascending from the subsoil to the surface. 
Once the surface cakes, these tubes become connected with the atmosphere, and through 
them moisture escapes. By breaking the surface, the tubes also are closed up, and the 
moisture is kept below for the benefit of the roots of plants. 

As a result of working the fallow, the soil conditions at the time of sowing should be 
ideal — the land should have a fine tilth, and be free from weeds. 

Another matter in connection with soil moisture is the presence of humus. Lands 
that contain humus are more capable of retaining moisture than those which do not. 
Humus has the power of absorbing moisture, but in dry climates it becomes rapidly 
exhausted, owing to being burnt by the heat : therefore it requires renewing more often 
than in moister localities. 

Milton. 

On 16th January, Mr. S. A. Hogg, Assistant Fruit Expert, delivered a 
lecture on fruit culture. He described planting methods carefully, and 
advocated the use of apples and pears in the district, mentioning Jonathan, 
King David, Rome Beauty, Granny Smith, and Yates as the most suitable 
varieties. Of pears, he recommended Williams, Packham's Tiiumph, and 
Josephine. Stone fruits could be grown for home consumption, but not for 
competition with the true peach-growing districts. 

A meeting was held on 18th January, when Mr, A. Warden and Mr. E. 
Breakwell, B.A., B.Sc, Agrostologist,took up the subject of the improvement 
of the pasture lands of the district. 

Mr. WARDEN said that the continuous feeding for years on pastures had taken 
nutriment out of the soil and had given nothing back ; hence the land had deteriorated 
and the soil had become exhausted. This was primarily because of the depletion of the 
humu3, and it would have to be restored before good results could be expected. This 
could be done by green manuring, cowpeas and other legumes being particularly suit- 
able for the purpose. Maize might be sown in drills, and after the third scuttling seed 
oi crim-;on clover could be sown, and then when the maize had been cut for silage the 
clover and stubble should be ploughed in. Attention should also be given to drainage 
and to rotation of crops. The email area under cultivation in the district was much to 
be deplored, as it made the improvement of the land much more difficult. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of X.S.1Y. 225 



Mr. Hrkakwell said he noticed a great spread of paspalum in the district since his 
visit five years ago. There was a complaint that paspalum afttr five years began to go 
off, and that on pastures exclusively comprising paspalum the returns showed a steady 
decreare. It seemed that the physical properties of the soil needed changing To briag 
about this change he recommended the practice of the North Coast farmers of ploughing 
it with a mouldboard plough, set shallow so that the plough would just skim the Mftface. 
This should be followed by cross-discing If this were done in the autumn, and a 
winter crop were sown, it woul 1 be possible to sow a crop like maize in the spring, after 
which the soil could be allowed to revert to paspalum or sown with some other crop. To 
supply the soil with humus he recommended a mixed crop — a drought-resistant grass, 
like Sudan grass (sown in drills), and cowpens. This made a perfectly balanced ration, 
and if fed off during the hot months could be ploughed under in the autumn and the soil 
would be considerably improved. Bokhara clover was a good rotation crop and should 
do remarkably .veil in this district. It should, however, be kept closely fed to get the 
best results. 

Another grass strongly recommended was Toowoomba canary grass ( Phahi 
T lis was a most succulent grass which gave splendid results. It would be advisable 
for farmers to get a few pounds of seed and try it on a small scale. 

Shearman's clover, a hybrid clover which had to be grown from roots, was strongly 
to be recommended for damp soils, provided the soil was good. This grass was quite a 
new thing, and was giving excellent results. Cows could only be left on it for a short 
time, however, as there was a tendency for them to become blown. 

Kikuyu grass, a Kaffir grass, was also mentioned as giving excellent results. 
Elephant grass was a good standby, but was apt to be coarse, and should be kept cut 
about two feet from the ground. He recommended, hoVever, that the farms should be 
divided into many paddocks, and that the cows be subjected to frequent change of 
pastur s. There would then, without doubt, be a considerable improvement in both the 
quality and the quantity of the milk yield. 

He was surprised at the careless way summer crops were sown. Even for ensilage 
much better results could be obtained if the crops were set in drills and kept free from 
weeds, instead of being broadcasted. He noticed, too, an absence of any attempt to 
conserve fodder. During the recent drought many farmers had lost cattle, while ether 
districts such as the Tuba Tilba, though similarly affected, were provided with silos 
and had saved their herds. 

Finally, Mr. Breakwell suggested a pastures competition, to be judged annually about 
show time, points to be awarded on the following scale : — Variety of grasses, 30 points ; 
legume*, 15 points ; freedom from weeds, 2~i points ; fieedom from disease, 10 points ; 
fertilising and rotation, 10 points ; judicious stocking, 10 points ; total, 100 points. 

Panibula. 
This branch met on 20th January, when Mr. J. A. Martin read a paper 
on the maize plots located in the district. He said it had been clearly 
demonstrated during the thirteen years that experiments had been conducted 
near Pambula that fertilisers were highly beneficial ; in some cases the 
increase had been as much as 20 bushels per acre, and on rich alluvial 
flats good results had generally been given by the P 5 mixture, but in the 
present trials where 2 cwt. superphosphate was used, the return was, per- 
haps, most economical. The following varieties had generally given high 
yields :— Red Hogan. Improved Yellow Dent, Silvermine, Boone County, 
and Funk's Yellow Dent. The only objection to Red Hogan was that it 
contained a high percentage of moisture, which soon dried out leaving the 
£;ram light. Hickory King was not suitable for flat lands. Of the newer 
varieties, U.S. 133 stood ouf: alone, being very early and infinitely superior 
to the flint type. Several members who had tried the last-named variety 
this season testified to good results from it. 

Penro8e-Kareela. 
The monthly meeting was held on the 8th February, when arrangements 
were forwarded for exhibits in connection with " Countrv Production 
Week," Hoe* Vale, and R.A.S. Shows. 



226 Agricultural Gazette ofN.S.W. [Mar. 2, 1921. 



Springside. 

This branch devoted its last meeting to the discussion of the proposals put 
forward by the Agriculture Section of the Royal Society. Many of the 
suggestions were approved of, but in other cases amendments were adopted. 
The meeting was a useful one, a variety of subjects being debated. 

Stoker's Siding. 

A branch of the Bureau has been formed at this centre, the following 
being the office-bearers : Chairman, Mr. R. Maxwell ; Vice-chairman, Mr. 
C. Cox : Treasurer, Mr. H. E. Byrnes ; Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. E. Richens. 
The subscription was fixed at 3s. 

Stratford. 

This branch met on 24th January, when the arrangements for an exhibit 
from the district at the Gloucester show were advanced. 

A herd-testing association has been formed in this district, consisting of 
the dairymen of Stratford and Gloucester. 

A paper was read by Mr?T. Germon on land settlement and rural finance. 
He attached great importance to roading as a factor in the development of 
settlement, and advocated that settlers should receive monetary assistance 
for such improvements as ring-barking, fencing, scrub-felling, &c, — say fifty 
per cent. That would enable the settler to meet his second year's work, 
such as suckering and grubbing, and from that time onward he should receive 
some return for his labour. The residence conditions should be relaxed, too, 
to allow the settler to take more work off his block. 

Warrah Creek. 

The monthly meeting was held on 20uh January, when a number of 
matters were discussed. The branch has already done useful work in pro- 
curing a local recreation ground and improving it, and the erection of a 
public hall is now under consideration. A sports meeting is to be held at 
Easter, the proceeds from which will be devoted to some local cause. 

Wellington. 

On 18th January Mr. S. A. Hogg, Assistant Fruit Expert, gave a lecture 
on summer thinning at Mr. M. Bembrick's orchard. It proved too 
late to do an} 7 thinning, the middle of December being the proper time, but 
the methods were outlined and valuable information was given. It had 
been found advisable, he said, not to top any trees at this time of the year, 
unless the trees were not evenly balanced, when the top shoot or shoots were 
nipped off, the exception being the case of some Japanese plums which made 
excessive growth in the season. The main thing in summer thinning was to 
keep the centre of the tree well open, also the sides should be fairly open, 
to admit plenty of direct light and air. If the tree was too crowded, the 
tendency in many trees was for the fruit bearing wood to go to the top of 
the tree, or the outside, and the result was the interior and bottom of the 
tree soon became denuded of fruit. 

In the evening, Mr. Hogg lectured on fruit preserving and jam making. 
The treatment of various fruits was outlined and the many ladies who 
were present, as well as gentlemen, profited by the suggestions made. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 227 



Wentworthville. 

On 19th January, Mr. W. Bennett delivered a lecture on the electrical 
treatment of seeds. 

Mr. Bennett hail himself experimented with seeds and had had some interesting results. 
White turnips took sixty days to mature, but by treating the need and vitalising the 
germ with a slight electric current the process was hurried and the turnip was ready for 
the table in thirty -five days. The same applied to practically every vegetable grown, the 
time limit being almost cut in halves, a more succulent vegetable being the result of the 
quick growth. 

The apparatus used was merely a small medical soil, similar to that used for the treat- 
ment of nervous disorders in people. He found that the seed must be well soaked in 
order that it may receive the current. Many agents had been tried, but the best results 
had been obtained from a weak solution of nitrate of ammonia ; nitrate of soda was also 
used without damage to the plant. Some of the greatest successes, however, were achieved 
with seed soaked in pure water. The method of applying the current was shown to the 
audience, the soaked seed being placed in a thin layer on a zinc plate to which one 
electrode had been connected, the other electrode being passed over the seed with a 
stroking movement. .Seed sown immediately after treatment was found to give the best 
results, but if kept for a time the seed must be properly dried. It had to be remembered 
that quick growing vegetables required a plentiful supply of water. 

A number of photographs showing the wonderful root systems developed by plants 
grown from electrified seeds Mere also exhibited. 

Departmental Note. — Much work has fcec-n done in England and Europe in this 
sphere and the consensus of opinion at present is that any good results obtained have 
been due rather to the soaking of the seed than to the electrical treatment. Dr. Russell, 
of the Rothamsted Experiment Station, states that the Wolfryn treatment (which closely 
resembles Mr. Bennett's method) lacks certainty. It might be pointed out that in cairy- 
ing out a test of this kind, the controls (or plots grown for comparison) should be sown 
with seed that has been soaked just as has been the electrified seed, so that the only 
difference in treatment should be the electrification and nothing else. Comparative plots 
sown with seed absolutely untreated would not truly test the results of electrification. 

Windsor. 

On 14th December. Mr. J. X. Whittet. Assistant Agrostologist, delivered 
a lecture on seeds and seed-testing. 

Mr. Whittet pointed out the paramount importance of the subject to farmers, covering 
not only quality, but purity. It was necessary to estimate, before planting, the per- 
centage of seeds that would germinate, and also the number of weed seeds present. At 
the same time the general appearance of the seed should be closely observed, and if net 
of a bright appearance, it could invariably be classed as old seed. If seed smelt musty, 
or if insects such as weevil or grain moth w< re present, it should be discarded, because 
good results could not be expected from such seed. Good quality seed would produce 
strorg seedlings, which would be able to stand a fair amount of dry weather, as strong 
seedlings would make a good rooting system, and thus would be able to collect moisture 
and plant food from a large area of soil. Some account was given of the seed-testing: 
work done by the Department, and of how it. acted on behalf of the Federal 
quarantine officials in connection with imported parcels of seeds. Rapid and even germ- 
ination, as well as fieedom from weed seeds, was of importance to the farmer, who there- 
fore had a peculiar interest in the work of seed-testing. 

Woonona. 

At the December meeting Mr. R. Hunter gave a valuable lecture on the 
soil, carrying out many interesting demonstrations in the presence of his 
hearers. Illustrating his remarks freely with blackboard sketches and prac- 
tical experiments, he dealt with his subject under the following headings : — 
(1) The soil, what it is ; [2) how it is made; (3) chief kinds of soil and how 
to improve them ; (4) dwellers in the soil : (5) what it does for the tiller. 

The annual show of the branch was held on 10th and 11th January, the 
event being more successful than any yet held. Poultry, fruit, vegetables, 
and flowers were all entered by a goodly number of competitors, the fruit and 



228 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



vegetables providing some particularly keen competitions. A special feature 
was the section showing specimens of plants grown by different manures and 
different methods. 

On 8th February there was a large attendance, when business connected 
with the autumn flower show was transacted. 

This branch is again to the fore in the purchase for members of fruit trees, 
fowl wheat, manures, etc., and it also holds spring and autumn flower shows, 
and a two-days and nights general show. With its 1G3 members, and a 
balance of £71 14s., it asks " Can you beat it?" 

Yarramalong. 

The branch met on 19th January, when general business connected with 
roading and postal matters were dealt with. The staging of an exhibit at 
the local show also occupied attention. 

On 9th February another meeting took place, at which a good deal of 
general business was transacted. The attention of the Department of Agri- 
culture was directed to a large flying-fox camp at Dooralong, and assistance 
asked in its destruction. Owing to the removal of Mr. E. Hodges from the 
district, Mr. A, A. Appeldorff was elected Hon. Secretary. 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES' SHOWS. 

Secretaries are invited to forward for insertion in this page dates of their 
forthcoming shows ; these should reach the Editor, Department of Agri- 
culture, Sydney, not later than the 21st of the month previous to issue. 
Alteration of dates should be notified at once. 

Society. IJdil. 

Mudgee A., P., EL, and I. Association .., 

Glen Irnes P. and A. Society 

Moruya A. and P. Society ... 

Tumbarumba and Upper Murray P. and A. Society.. 

•Gloucester P., A., and H. Society 

Cootna P. and A. Association ... 

Goulburn A., P., and H. Society 

Batlow A. Society ... ... 

Nimmitabel A. and P. Association 

Armidale and New England P., A., and H. Assocn. ... 

Cumnock P., A., 'and H. Association 

Upper Hunter P. and A. Association 

Gandagai P. and A. Society 

Macleay A., H. , and I. Association (Kempsey) 

Royal Agricultural Society of N.S.W. 

Queanbeyan P. and A. Association 

Ooonabarabran P. & A. Association ... 

Upper Manning A. and H. Association (Wingham).. 

Narrabri ?<■, A., and H. Association ... 

Orange A. and P. Association ... 

Clarence P. and A. Society (Grafton) 

Wellington P., A., and H. Society 

Hiwkesbury District A. Association (Windsor) 
Murrumbidgee P. and A. Association (Wagga) ... 

Oorowa P.. A., and H. Society 

Cootamundra A. P. H. & I. Association 

Northern A. Association (Singleton) 

Henty P. and A. Society ... 

Deniliquin P. and A. Society ... 

Priut-d and published by WILLIAM APPLEQATE OULLICK, of Sydney, Government Printer, and 
Publisher, of the State of New South Wales, at Phillip street, Sydney. 



Secretary. 




Date 


. E. J. Hannan 


.. Mai 


'. 8, 9, 10 


. Geo. A. Priest 




8, 9, 10 


. H. P. Jeffery . 


•• M 


9, 10 


. E. C. Cunningham ,, 


9, 10 


. F. H. Chester .. 




10, 11 


. C. J. Walmsley . 


.. ,, 


10, 11 


. F. D. Hay 


t| 


10, 11, 12 


. C. S. Gregory 


'• >> 


1.-, 16 


. 0. E. Silk 


• ft 


15, 16 


A. H. Mc Arthur., 


>• i y 


15 to IS 


K. J. Abernethy. 


>i 


16 


. R. C. Saw kins „ 


>• »» 


16, 17 


, H. W. Simpson ., 


»• 


16, 17 


E. Weeks 


• >> 


16, 17, IS 


. H. M. Somer 




21 to 30 


. J. G. Harris 


>> 


23, ?.4 


. Geo. B McEwen. 


..April 7. S 


. D, Stewart 


»> 


13, 14 


. C. C. Baker 




13, 14, 15 


. C. W. Williams.. 


• >> 


13, 14, 15 


L. C. Lawson 


»> 


13 to 16 


A. E. Rotton 


* > 


19, 20 


H. S. Johnston .. 


. May 12, 13, 1- 


A. F. D. White .. 


.Aug. 


23, 24, 25 


J. D. Fraser 




30, 31 


C. H. Inson 


Sfi'pt. 


11, 13 


J. T. McMahon .., 


> > 


15, 16, 17 


H. Wuhrman 


> t 


27, 28 


P. Fagan 




28 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agr Gazette of N.S.W. 



Scottish Australian Investment Co., Ltd. 

DARBALARA STUD of MILKING SHORTHORN CUTTLE 

GUNDAGAI, N.S.W. 





EIviBLEIvl OF DARBALARA (100). 

Banker (5) ex Madame (406). 

Stdsbt R.A.S. Records :— Ut md Champion, 1910, 1911, 

1912, 1913, 1914, 19io and 1916. First in Bull and Pr 

1913, 1915 and 1916. Unbeaten for 7 successive years. 



KITCHENER OF DARBALARA 409) 
Emblem of Darbalara (100) ex Lily II of Darbalara (1,01( 

Stdsbt R.A.S. Records: — 1st. as yearling, 1914: 1st, 2 yea 
old, 1915 ; 1st, 3 years old, 19i6 ; 1st and Champion, 4 yea 
old. 1917 ; 2nd and Reserve Champion. 1918 : and 1st 
Bnll and Progenv. Unbeaten for 5 rears, except once 1 
ELECTED OF DARBALAKA, brtd by the same Stud. 



MELBA VII 
OF DARBALARA 

(4.181). 

Sire— 
Emblem of Darbalara (100). 

Dam — 
Melba IV of Darbalara 

(1,576). 
World's record for a Short- 
horn Cow, 365 days. 




Govt. Official Recoids : 

1 years old, for 273 days, 

8.077 lb. Milk, 412 lb. Butter. 

4 years old, for 273 days, 

'.b. Milk, 678 lb. 

Butter. 6 years old, for 273 

days, 14,371 lb. Milk, 336 lb. 

Butter. 6 years old, for 

365 days, 17,364 lb. Milk, 

lb. Butter. 




MELBA XV OF DARBALARA (4.188). 

Sire Kitchener of Darbalara (419). 

Dam— Melba VII of Darbalara (4,181). 

Govt. Official Rbcokcs : — At 2 rears old, 8,S44 lb. Milk, 
461 lb. Butter for i73 days ; 3 vears, 13,510 lb. Milk, 707 lb. 
Butter, for 273 days ; 4 rears, 1S.131 lb. Milk, 930 lb. Butter, 
for 278 davs. A record M.S. Test of the World for the period. 

R.A.S. Rboobds:— 1st Prize as 2 year old in Milk, 1918; 
winner of Sydney Morning Herald and Mail Special Prize, 
1920, highest yield all breeds ; winner of M. 8. Association's 
Special Prise. 




MELBA XI OF DARBALARA (4,185) 
SIr»— Union Jaek of Darbalara (631). 
Dam— Melba VII of Darbalara (4,181). 

Govt. Official Records : At 3 years old, 9,165 lb. Mill 
481 lb. Butter for 273 days. 

R.A.8. Records:— 1st Prize 2 year old and Reser 
Ch.impion, J917 ; 1st Prize 3 year old and Champion. 1911 
1st and Champion. 1920, M. S. Seetlon; let in yield of mil 
1st in Lactation Test Prize, and 2nd in Champion Butt 
Prize. 



Bred by and Property of The Scottish Australian Investment Company, Ltd., Darbalara Estate, Gundatrsi, N.S.W. 
HIGH-CLASS PEDIGREED YOUNG BULLS FOR SALE. 

For full particulars apply The MANAGER, Darbalara. 

Darbalara is easy of aocess from Sydney or Melbourne by train to Gundagai. 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



"Champion" Stump-jump Plow. 




A Farmer's Boy, 6 Horses, and a " Clutterbuck " ro-Furrow Plow, 
have been known to plow ioo acres of land 4 inches deep in a week. 

" THINK OF IT!" 

MADE IN 



8 FURR.- 
£62 



HFURR. 
£66 



12 FURR.— 14 FURR.- 
£T2 £76 



Sole 

AGENTS) 



Clutterbuck Bros. Ltd. ^l"* 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, NEW SOUTH WALES. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 



Vegetable Growing in New South Wales. 

A. J. PINN and R. N. MAKIN. „ A Book useful to all Groweri 

Inspectors of Agriculture. ^ of Vegetable*. 

137 Pages. Illustrated. Price. 2s. 6d. ; postage, 2cl. extra. 
OBTAINABLE FROM THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER. SYDNEY. 



H. M. SUTTOR & Co., 



ESTABLISHED 1887. 

Offices : 2 Bond-st., Sydney. 

PASTORAL and AGRICULTURAL AGENTS, 

GRAIN AND PRODUCE SALESMEN. 

WHEAT, MAIZE, OATS, Ac, CHAFF, LUCERNE, OATEN HAT, POTATOES, &•., RECEIVED FOR 
SALE DAILY AT ALEXANDRIA. 

Reliable Information Glten re Markets. * TOP PRICES. QUICK RETURNS. 




Flies gather round old sores, wounds, Sec, 
and annoy the animal, but 

ROWS EMBROCATION 
will keep them away and heal at the same 
time 

Established 50 Ykars. 

Sole Makers — 
EDWARD ROW & CO., Sydney. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 



m 



Power 

For Factory, Farm, Station, etc, 



THE WORLD-FAMED 



RUSTON & HORNSBY 

Suction Gas Engines and Plants, 

Wood Rofuso Suction Gas Producers, 

Kerosene and Crude Oil Engines, 
Petrol Paraftne Engines, Benzine Engines, 

Steam and Traction Engines, 

Road Rollers— Steam and Oil, 

Oil Loco's, Steam Boilers, 

Centrifugal Pumps, Exhaust Heat Boilers. 

LARGE STOCKS ON HAND AND TO ARRIVE. 
FULL RANGE OF SPARES ALWAYS IN STOCK. 

Ruston & Hornsby Ltd., 

1 Barrack St., SYDNEY, and at MELBOURNE & BRISBANE. 

WORKS AT LINCOLN, GRANTHAM AND STOCKPORT, ENGLAND. 





The Chief Inspector of Stock, Government of New South Wales, 
approves of the use of this preparation. 




Bvl 


P> SAVE YOUR 

# / CALVES 






^££i*j^r No dose 

^J PARh 
M 125 York- st rt 


T BY US1NO 

BLACKLEGOIDS 

To Vaccinate against blackleg. 

Simple, Safe. Effective. 

to Measure No liquid to spill. No striag to ret 

iplj a little pill to be injected under the ikia. 
•end for r«Es Boorun, 
For Sale by 

:E, DAVIS & COMPANY. 

ANUFACTURING CHEMISTS, 

iet, Sydney. Box 224 G.P.O. 






* 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1021. 



STUD PIGS FOR SALE AT THE HOSPITAL, 
CALLAN PARK. ' 



For further particulars apply to Manager. 
(The prices quoted hold good for the current month only.) 



No. 



Description. 



Sire. 



Dam. 



D;ite 
of harrow. 



Price 
Bach. 



617 



624 
6-25 



628 
630 
631 
632 
633 
634 
635 
636 



637 
640 
641 



642 
644 
645 
646 

647 
648 
649 



650 
651 
652 
653 

651 
655 
656 



Berkshire Boar 



Berkshire Sow ... 
Berkshire Sow ... 



Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 
Berkshire 



Boar 

Sow 
Sow 
Sow 
Sow 
Sow 
Sow 
Sow 



Berkshire Boar 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 



Berkshire Boar 
Berkshire Boar 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 
Bei kshiie Sow 
Beikshire Sow 



Berkshire Boar 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire S»nv 
Beikshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 
Berkshire Sow 



Koramburra 
Major, No. 520a 

Koramburra 
Major, No. 520a 



Koramburra 

Major, No. 520a 



Callan Park Dan 
No. 600a 



Callan Park Dai 

No. 600a 



Koramburra 

Major, No. 520a 



Callan Park Dew- 
drop, No. 500 

Callan Park Birdy, 
No. 520b 



Callan Park Lady, 
No. 520e 



Callan Park Alice, 
No. 520e 



Callan Park Lucy 
No. 520d 



1920. 

Sept 7 
Sept. 17 



Oct. 17 



Callan Park Patsy, 
No. 484 



Nov. 



£. 9. d. 

7 7 



7 7 



6 6 



Oct. 27 6 6 



Nov. 2 6 6 



6 6 



Prices quoted include delivery in crates at Darling Harbour or Wharf at Sydney 

A full pedigree is furnished with every pig sold. 

All communications to l>e addressed to-- 
"Tin; Manager, Mental Hospital, Callan Park Sydney." 

(Please add Exchange for Country Cheques.) 

21st February, 1921. R. KIRKPATRICK, Manager. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 



E. C. Elliott Co. Ltd., 

FORMERLY ELLIOTT. MACLEAN h. CO.). 

75 Macquarie Street and Circular Quay, 
SYDNEY, N.S.W. 



\T^i _ _ The old firm has been entirely reorganised 

lXvllvv • and formed into a Limited Liability Company. 
"■^^■■^■■■■■^^^ with a profit-sharing arrangement with our 
Employees, thus ensuring that the best services of a highly 
competent. Expert Staff will always be given to our clients' 
requirements. 



Concrete 

Mixers. 

Builders' 

Machinery 

and 

Plant. 



Reinforced 

Concrete 

Designers 

and 

Specialists. 



WE ARE SOLE AGENTS 
FOR 

COX'S PATENT AIR GAS PLANTS 

which us^ ordinary motor petrol with 96% Air, 
which co*ts nothing, making the cheapest light 
in the world. 

Absolutely Safe, Simple, Automatic. 

NEPONSET PRODUCTS— PAROID and 
CHALLENGE Roofings are . the be>t Rolled 
Roofings the world produces. 

EVINRUDE PUMPS, with Petrol Engine 
Combined — for Farm or Domestic use. 

WALL SAFES, with Figure Locks, Fire and 
Burglar Proof. 

A Safe Deposit in your own Home. 



E. C. Elliott Co. Ltd., 

75 MACQUARIE STREET, SYDNEY. 



VI 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. 2, 1921. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, N.S.W. 



STUD DAIRY CATTLE 



Always Available 

Young Bulls from Tested Stock. 



Watch for Yearly Annual Sales 

at the Farms and Royal Agricultural Show of 

Females of Best Milking Strains. 



MILKING SHORTHORN BULL 

Melba's Emblem of Darbalara (461, 
M.S.H.B.). 

Sire, Emblem of Darbalara (ioo M.S.H.B.) 

Dam, Melba III ot Darbalara (1058 M.S.H.B.) 

Yield of Dam, 15,233 lb. milk and 
65365 lb. butter in 365 days. 

Melba's Emblem of Darbalara was Reserve 
Champion Milking Shorthorn Bull, R.A.S., 
Sydney, 1920. 



Other Sires in use i 

Rutland of Darbalara (575 M.S.H.B.), 
by Emblem of Darbalara (100). # 

Yield of Dam, 12,324 lb. milk and 
579 lb. butter in 365 days. 

Comrade of Darbalara (Vol. V, M.S.H.B.), by Silver Mine of Darbalara (592). 

Yield of Dam, 8,436 lb. milk and 398 lb. butter in 273 days as a 2-year old. 

Nkwhaven of Darbalara (Vol. V, M.S.H.B.), by Lily's Cupid of Darbalara (431) (half-brother of 

Emblem of Darbalara). 

Yield of Dam, 9,163 lb. milk and 419 lb. butter in 365 days when 16 years old. 




MILKING SHORTHORN COW. 
Gibson Girl (1,465, imp.). 

Yield, 10,702 lb. milk and 49479 lb. butter 
in 365 days. 




G. VALDER, 
Under Secretary and Director, Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 



Mar. 2, 1921.] 



Agricultural Gazelle of X.S.W 



rilt 



PEICE LIST OF PURE BRED PIGS FOR SALE 
AT HOSPITAL, GLADESVILLE. 

(The prices quoted hold good for the current month only.) 



N*. 



Description. 



Sire. 



Date 
Farrowed. 



Price 
Each. 



2424-5-6 

2440-1 

2446-7 

2458-2460 

2476 

2477 78 

2488-89 

2493-94-95 

2496-97-98 

2500-1 

2510-11 

2512-13 

2520-21 

2524 

2525 

2526-27 

2530-31 
2636-37 

2543 
2547-48 
2549-50 

2552 
•2553-54-55 

255« 
2557-58 

2560 
2561-62 

2563 
2564-65 



Large York. Boars 
Large York. Boars 
L\rge York. Boars 
Mid. York. Boars 
Mid. York. Boar 
Mid. York. ."Sows 
Mid. York. Sows 
Mid. York. Sows 
Mid. York. Boars 
Mid. York. Sows 
Large York. Boars] 
Large York. Sows 
Berkshire Sows ... 

Mid. York. Boar 
Mid. York. Sow 
Large York. Boars 

Berkshire Sows ... 
Berkshire Sows ... 
Berkshire Boar /. . 
Large York. Boars 
Large York. Sows 
Berkshire Boar ... 
Berkshire Sows ... 
Berkshire Boar ... 
Berkshire Sows .. 
Berkshire Boar ... 
Berkshire Sows ... 
Large York Boar 
Large York. Sowsj 



Hawkesbury Ferryman, 
King Charles II ... 
Hawkesbury Ferryman 
QUdesville Grand Boy 
j Sun don Sydney 
\ (Imp.) 
Sundon Syd.(Imp) 

Gladesville Grand 
Boy 

\ King Charles II i 

Glad'ville Long- 
fellow II 
1 Sundon Sydney 
J (Imp.) 
Hawkesbury i 

Ferry man 
1 Whitley Wales 

J (Imp.) 
Herrison King 
") Hawkesbury \ 
) Ferryman / 

| Wedenga Pa* ... 

I Herrison Ki«g 

\ Whitley Wales 
/ (Imp.) 
~) Hawkesbury 
) Ferryman 



Brighton Lass 
Glad'ville Empress II... 
Brighton Lady 
Gladesville Lila .. 
Glad'ville Maid III 

Gladesville Maid .. 
College Rambling 

Roee 
Gladesville Joan 

Glad'ville Empress IV 

Polly Pry V 

Gladesville Snow- 
drop. 

Gladesville 
Empress V 

Herrieon Queen V 

Polly Pry VII ... 

Empire Queen 

Brighten Lass 

Herrieon Queen VI 

Shert Faee Jane 
Gladesville May 

Brighton Lady 



1P90. 

May 17 

June 2 

June 20 

July 12 

Aug. 5 

Aug. 18 

Aug. 29 

Sept. 8 

Oct. 1 

Oct. 8 

Sept. 30 

Sept. 30 

Oct. 23 

Oct. 29 

Nov. 1 

Nov. 29 

Dec. 6 

Dec. 6 

Dec. 22 

Dec. 22 



£ a 

15 15 

13 13 

12 12 

12 12 

f 13 13 

112 12 

11 11 

ril 11 

ill 11 

10 10 

11 11 
10 10 

10 10 

(12 12 
111 11 

11 11 



f 11 11 

111 11 
11 11 

no io 

l 9 9 
(10 10 
I 9 9 
(10 10 
I 9 9 
(10 10 
110 10 

no 10 

( 9 9 



If it is desired to proeure any of the above pigs in farrow they would be 
kept until old enough for service, put to suitable boars, and retained until sure 
of being in farrow, for £19 19s. each sow. For this sum pregnancy will be 
guaranteed, and to do this it may be necessary to keep sow here until 10 or 11 
months old. 

Prices quoted cover erates, half insurance, and freight to any railway 
station in N.S.W., or to any wharf in N.S.W. where steamers from Sydney can, 

Orders for pigs can only be acted upon when accompanied by remittance. 
Please add exchange for country eheques. 

148 Prizes have been won at the Royal Agricultural Show, Sydney. 

(A full Pedigree is romlshad with every Pig sold./ 

Mar., 1921. W. A. E. LEWIS, Manager, Gladesville Hospital. 

All cemm«n cations should be addressed to " The Manager" Mental Hospital, GtadesviOt. 



vm 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. 



[Mar. '2, 1921. 




Morgan Spading Harrows 
at Anthony Hordern's 



"THE infinite care exercised in every detail of 
manufacture has brought its own reward — the 
demand has grown until MORGAN SPADING 
HARROWS are now used and thoroughly 
appreciated by Men on the Land in most parts 
of Australia. 

We stock the following sizes : — 



Style. 

A. 
A. 
C, 
A. 
C. 
C. 



Description. 



Sets of 
Spads. 

3 ft. One horse (XT io) 

4ft.. Light, two horse 

5 ft. Two horse 

6 ft. Standard, two horse (XT 104)... 

7 ft. Two or three horse 

8 ft. Heavy, two or three horse 

If with 2-wheeI Fore Carriage, 60/- extra. 
Harrows, 4 feet and over, supplied with two levers. 



8 



14 
16 



Size of 
Spads. 

16 in. 
16 in. 
18 in. 
16 in. 
18 in. 
18 in. 



Weight. 

290 lb. 
350 lb. 
400 lb. 
450 lb. 
5=;olb. 
Coo lb. 



Price. 

£18/i7/6 
£19/10/- 
£20/10/6 
£21/ 2/6 

£25/-/- 
£27/-/- 



ANTHONY HORDERN & SONS LIMITED, 

Bride-Field Hill, Sydney. 



2, 1921. Agricultural Gazette of X.S.W. 



The Murrumbidgee 
Irrigation Areas 

FARMS NOW AVAILABLE 



Soils may be chosen suitable for the 

ORCHARDIST, VEGETABLE GROWER. DAIRYMAN, VITICULTURIST. 

POULTRYMAN, PIG FARMER, BEE FARMER, 

AND GENERAL FARMER. 



I 



FERTILE 
LAND 



AND 



CHEAP 
WATER 




Liberal Assistance to 
Settlers on Easy Terms. 

SUBJECT to such conditions as to security and terms 
of repayment as the Commission may think fit 
to impose, Settlers may obtain an advance on 
improvements effected, or have payment of rent and water 
rates suspended. Trees and Vines may be purchased from 
the Commission's Nursery — Specially selected Dairy Stock 
are obtainable — Railway concessions are granted on New 
South Wales Railways. * 

(Change of policy may require alteration of terms of 
assistance.) 

Butter, Bacon, and Canning Factories in operation in the 
Leeton district. 

Schools, Churches, Banks, Stores, Boarding Houses are 
established. 

SPECIAL CONDITIONS for DISCHARGED SOLDIERS 



Information on every point, including pamphlets, lithographs, and list of 
Farms available is obtainable on application to the 

Water Conservation and Irrigation Commission, 

Branch "C," Union House, 247 George Street, Sydney, 
or the Resident Commissioner, Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Leeton. 



Agricultural Gazette of N.S.W. Mar, 2, 1921. *> 




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